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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
[Biennial or] perennial herb from rhizomes [taproots]; roots fleshy-fibrous and fibrous [or tuber-like]. Stem: suberect to erect, simple or branched, fleshy, or 0 and leaves from rhizomes. Leaf: simple, pinnate-[palmate-]lobed, or compound, basal or cauline, alternate, mottled white in shade; petiole widened, proximally purple, bases clasping, persistent, fleshy, juicy; leaflets toothed or lobed, hairy, generally paler abaxially, basal pair free, terminal ± united. Inflorescence: generally branched, generally head-like cymes; peduncles proximally purplish, in fruit erect or recurved; pedicels generally elongate, in fruit spreading or recurved. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, lobes generally equal, generally ± alike, linear to narrowly oblong or lanceolate, acute to obtuse, glabrous or hairy, generally ciliate, generally ± enlarging in fruit, sinus appendages 0 [present]; corolla lobed to middle, > calyx, bell-shaped, white, cream, ± green, purple, or blue, tube with linear scales at base forming channeled pollinator guide, lobes with nectary gland on midvein, hairy; stamens equal, exserted, filaments at mid-level generally hairy; ovary chamber 1, placentas parietal, style 1, exserted, glabrous, cleft < 1/4, stigmas 2, base persistent, disk proximal to ovary. Fruit: capsule, 3–5 mm, spheric; tip generally bristly, loosely enclosed by calyx. Seed: 1–4, oblong to spheric, brown or yellow- or red-brown, net-like, fleshy appendages 0.Key to Hydrophyllum
11 species: North America; some cultivated as ornamentals. (Greek: water leaf) [Constance 1942 Amer Midl Naturalist 27:710–731] Hydrophyllum capitatum var. alpinum raised to species rank, as Hydrophyllum alpestre.
Unabridged references: [Beckmann 1979 Amer J Bot 66:1053–1061]
Previous taxon: Howellanthus dalesianus
Next taxon: Hydrophyllum alpestre
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hydrophyllum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=9652, accessed on Sep 2 2015
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