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BRASSICACEAE (Cruciferae) MUSTARD FAMILY

Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted

Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1–many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
± 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006 Plant Syst Evol 259:89–120] Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central North Coast Ranges, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in South Coast, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in Peninsular Ranges, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Brassicaceae

THYSANOCARPUS LACEPOD, FRINGEPOD

Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz & Thomas J. Rosatti

Annual; hairs 0 or simple. Leaf: simple, sessile, entire, dentate, or pinnately lobed; middle, distal cauline clasping, lobed or not. Inflorescence: open (dense). Flower: sepals ascending, base not sac-like; petals ± >= sepals, white or ± purple-tinged, not clawed; fertile anthers yellow or generally purple (flowers occasionally with whitish or yellowish infertile anthers). Fruit: indehiscent, pendent, elliptic to ovate or round, unsegmented, over-seed (i.e., excluding wing) generally plano-convex; septum 0; wing generally not incurved toward over-seed flat side, entire, wavy-margined, crenate, perforated, or divided into spoon-shaped lobes, rays (radiating veins) present or not, generally ± indistinct; stigma entire. Seed: 1, elliptic to round, wingless.
6 species: western North America. (Greek: fringe fruit) [Revised taxonomy based on Alexander et al. (2010 Syst Bot 35:559–577).]

Key to Thysanocarpus

T. curvipes Hook.
NATIVE
Plant hairy at least proximally (glabrous). Stem: 1–6(8) dm. Leaf: basal 1–6(13) cm, oblanceolate to obovate, subentire to wavy-dentate; cauline lanceolate, bases lobed, clasping. Inflorescence: raceme open. Flower: fertile anthers purple, rarely some flowers with whitish or yellowish infertile anthers. Fruit: 3–6(9) mm wide, obovate to ± round, hairs 0 or 0.2–0.4 mm, club-shaped; wing flat or ± incurved toward over-seed convex side, entire, crenate, with spoon-shaped lobes, or perforated, rays 0.2–0.5 mm wide (0); proximal pedicels recurved in a continuous arc, 3–7(12) mm.
2n=28. Intermediates between subspecies common. Feb–Jun [Online Interchange]

T. curvipes subsp. amplectens (Greene) P.J. Alexander & Windham
NATIVE
Stem: glabrous. Fruit: < 6 mm, 3.5–5.5(6.5) mm wide; wing rayed, entire, crenate, with spoon-shaped lobes, or perforated; style 0.2–0.7 mm.
Slopes, washes, moist meadows, woodland, streambanks; < 2500 m. Southwestern California, Desert; southern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, Mexico (northern Sonora). [Thysanocarpus curvipes Hook. sensu TJM2 (2012), in part] Intergrades with Thysanocarpus curvipes subsp. eradiatus where ranges overlap in southern California, southern Arizona. [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Thysanocarpus, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=95355, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Thysanocarpus curvipes subsp. amplectens Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.