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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae


Genevieve K. Walden, Robert Patterson, Laura M. Garrison & Debra R. Hansen

1 sp. (Howell flower, for J.T. Howell, California botanist, 1903–1994) [Walden & Patterson 2010 Madroño 57:268–273.]

H. dalesianus (J.T. Howell) Walden & R. Patt. SCOTT MOUNTAIN PHACELIA
Perennial herb 5–15 cm, from ± thick caudex. Leaf: in basal rosette, blade 10–50 mm, ± = petiole, oblong to elliptic, entire. Inflorescence: peduncles axillary, from base, few, decumbent, densely glandular-hairy; leaf-like bracts 0–3, subtending inflorescence; flowers 1–several; pedicel 10–20 mm in fruit. Flower: calyx lobes 3–5 mm, 4–7 mm in fruit, ± not alike, especially in fruit, lanceolate to oblanceolate; corolla deciduous, 6–9 mm, rotate, white, throat purple-marked, corolla scales free from filaments, hemispheric; stamens 6–8 mm, included to slightly exserted, equal, attached at same level, glabrous, filament not widened at base; style 6–7 mm, ± included, cleft nearly to base, generally glabrous, occasionally sparsely hairy proximally. Fruit: ± 4 mm, ± spheric, hairy. Seed: 2–4, 2.5–4 mm; surface net-veined.
n=8. Ultramafic substrates, meadows, streambanks, conifer forest; 1500–2000 m. Klamath Ranges. [Phacelia dalesiana J.T. Howell] May–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Howellanthus, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 27 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Howellanthus dalesianus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.