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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub, aromatic, of sunny areas, often sandy or chalky substrates; hairs nonglandular, in stellate clumps or not, peltate or not, and/or glandular. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite [whorled], often ± reduced, entire or not, petioled or not, stipuled or not. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like cymes or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, ± radial; sepals 3 or 5 (outer 2 often narrower), free or fused at very base, often persistent in fruit, 3 twisted in direction opposite that of petals; petals [0(3)]4–5, generally ephemeral; stamens (3–10) many, free, often sensitive to touch, ± persistent in fruit or not; ovary superior, chambers 1 (or ± 3–12 from intruded parietal placentas), style 0–1, stigma 1(3), lobes 0 or 3–12. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, valves 3–12. Seed: [1–]3–many.
8 genera, ± 175 species: temperate, especially southeastern United States, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Cistus; Crocanthemum; Tuberaria). [Arrington 2004 Ph.D. Dissertation Duke Univ] Flowers open in sunshine for < 1 day. Taxa of Helianthemum in TJM2 treated here in Crocanthemum. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Strother FNANM, in press]
Key to Cistaceae
Perennial herb or subshrub, deciduous, generally late summer, fall; hairs generally in stellate clumps, rarely glandular (except inflorescence), sparse to dense. Stem: generally erect, ± broom-like. Leaf: basal 0 [present]; cauline generally alternate, generally linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, sessile to short-petioled, margins entire, generally rolled under, stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme- or panicle-like, glandular hairs on branches, pedicels generally 0 to sparse; cleistogamous flowers 0 [present]. Flower: sepals 5, outer 2 generally narrower; petals yellow; stamens 10–many; style < 2 mm, stigma ± hemispheric. Fruit: generally ± ovoid; valves generally 3.Key to Crocanthemum
21 species: North America to South America. (Greek: yellow flower) [Sorrie 2012 Phytologia 93:270–271] Esp abundant after fire, resprouting from woody caudex. New World taxa transferred from polyphyletic Helianthemum by Sorrie. Descriptions refer to opening flowers; cleistogamous flowers (0 in California), sometimes produced later, lack petals. Flowers of Crocanthemum scoparium from Mt. Diablo reported to have 5 stamens, which instead seem to represent 5 united pairs.
Unabridged note: Based on molecular and other data (as yet unpublished, by Jenny Arrington & Paul Manos) Helianthemum is polyphyletic; California taxa more closely related to Crocanthemum and Hudsonia than to Helianthemum; New World members treated in Crocanthemum by Sorrie, who is preparing treatment for FNANM.
Stem: 10–45 cm. Leaf: petiole 0–2 mm; blade 5–11 mm, 0.5–2(3.5) mm wide. Flower: outer sepals 1.5–3.5 mm, ± 0.3 mm wide, linear, inner 3.5–5(7.5) mm, 2–3 mm wide, ovate, acute to acuminate; petals 4–8 mm, obovate; stamens 10–18. Fruit: 3–4 mm. Seed: 6–10. [Helianthemum scoparium Nutt. sensu TJM2 (2012), in part] [Online Interchange]
Stem: generally 10–30 cm, proximally spreading and distally ascending or proximally ascending and distally erect. Flower: 1–10 per stem; outer sepals 1.5–2.5 mm.
Dry sandy or rocky slopes, ridges in coastal sage scrub, chaparral; < 500 m. North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast (rare), n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island); Baja California. [Helianthemum scoparium Nutt. var. scoparium; Helianthemum scoparium Nutt. sensu TJM2 (2012), in part] Unnamed variant with at least distal branches, pedicels, sepals white-woolly hairy, sporadic along coast (Monterey Co. to San Diego Co.) and on Santa Cruz Island, in need of study; a second, informally named "Helianthemum mendocinensis" by Alice Eastwood, with densely stellate-hairy stems and inner sepals to 7.5 mm, local in coastal Mendocino Co., also needs study. Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]
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Next taxon: Crocanthemum scoparium var. vulgare
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Crocanthemum, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=95271, accessed on Apr 23 2014
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