|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
[Annual, perennial herb to] shrub, [tree], nodes generally swollen. Leaf: simple, generally opposite, entire (toothed [lobed]); stipules 0. Inflorescence: variable, with bracts, generally also bractlets. Flower: bisexual; calyx deeply (3)4–5 lobed [(sepals free)]; corolla 4–5 lobed, radial to 2-lipped; stamens 2 or 4, epipetalous, anther sacs sometimes dissimilar in size or placement; ovary superior, 4–many-ovuled, chambers 1–2, placentas axile (free central), stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2. Seed: 1–4[+], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit.
220 genera, 4000 species: especially tropics; some ornamental: Justicia (Beloperone, shrimp-plant), Acanthus, Thunbergia. [Daniel 1998 Proc Calif Acad Sci 50:217–256; Hilu et al. 2003 Amer J Bot 90:1758–1766; Schwarzbach & McDade 2002 Syst Bot 27:84–98] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Daniel 1984 Desert Plant 5:162–179; Daniel 1998 Proc Calif Acad Sci 50:217–256]
Key to Acanthaceae
Shrub [to tree]; roots spreading, exposed at low tide. Leaf: persistent, petioled; blade thick. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, head-like, < peduncle; bractlets 3, generally < calyx, outer 1 > inner 2. Flower: calyx deeply 5-lobed; corolla 4-lobed, radial, rotate; stamens 4, attached at 1 level. Fruit: ellipsoid to ovoid, often asymmetric, 1-chambered, generally indehiscent; stalk not flat.
± 8 species: temperate, subtropics worldwide, generally coastal marshes, lagoons. (Avicenna, Persian physician, philosopher, 980–1037) [Duke et al. 1998 Evolution 52:1612–1626] Placement in Acanthaceae s.l. fairly well established; sister group relationship with Thunbergioideae weakly supported (Schwarzbach & McDade 2002; Hilu et al. 2003).
Unabridged references: [Moran 1980 Madroño 27:143]
Stem: < 2.5 m; trunk < 10 cm diam. Leaf: 4–11 cm, elliptic to ovate, leathery; adaxially ± shiny, abaxially felt-like. Inflorescence: 4–9-flowered; peduncles 2–4 cm; bractlets ± ovate. Flower: corolla ± yellow-white, lobes ± ovate, leathery, puberulent abaxially. Fruit: ± 2 cm diam, ovoid.
Coastal salt marshes; ± 0 m. South Coast (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.); native to New Zealand, Australasia. [Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. resinifera (G. Forst.) Bakh.] First planted in 1960s, then weedy, extirpation failed in 1990. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Avicennia
Next taxon: Carlowrightia
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Avicennia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=95202, accessed on Nov 23 2014
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Avicennia marina var. australasica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month