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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree.
Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound.
Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head.
Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/ throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches.
Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) ( drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Fl and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in CA. Inula helenium L. not documented in CA. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in CA and of eudicots globally.
Key to Asteraceae
[Annual] perennial herbs to subshrub from taproot or woody caudex, glabrous or tomentose, often glandular-sticky.Key to Grindelia
Leaf: simple, alternate, generally not fleshy, entire, crenate, serrate, or pinnately lobed, gland-dotted.
Inflorescence: heads generally radiate (discoid); involucre obconic to hemispheric, generally gummy; phyllaries in 4–10 graduated series; receptacle flat to convex, ± pitted, epaleate.
Ray flower: 0–60; corolla yellow.
Disk flower: corolla yellow; anther tip lanceolate; style-branch appendages linear to lanceolate, generally >= stigmatic portion.
Fruit: cylindric or swollen-obconic, shiny-white to ± brown, smooth or ridged, glabrous; pappus of 1–6 narrow awns (occasionally construed as bristle-like) [25–40 bristles], ± < disk corolla, generally entire, deciduous.
± 60 species: c&w North America, South America. (D.H. Grindel, Latvian botanist, 1776–1836) [Strother & Wetter 2006 FNANM 20:424–436] Variable. Morphologically intermediate plants common where species ranges overlap. Strother & Wetter treated all CA species except Grindelia squarrosa and Grindelia fraxinipratensis in Grindelia hirsutula. Grindelia ciliata (Nutt.) Spreng. [Prionopsis ciliata (Nutt.) Nutt.], with pappus of many united bristles (falling as a unit), is an historical waif from n CCo, n SCo.
Perennial 8–20 dm, erect, branched throughout.
Leaf: 1–17 cm; basal generally 0 at flower, distal smaller; blade lance- ovate, ± fleshy, sessile or tapered to ± petiole-like base, glabrous, green to red-green, entire or serrate.
Inflorescence: involucre 10–20 mm diam, hemispheric, glabrous, generally resinous; phyllaries in 4–5 series, bases wide, straw-colored, tips acute to acuminate, flat to ± round in ×-section, outer spreading, reflexed, or coiled 270–360°.
Ray flower: 20–30; ray 10–17 mm.
Fruit: ± 4 mm, tan, top truncate; awns 2–5.
Salt marshes, banks of sloughs; < 30 m. Deltaic Great Central Valley (Suisun).
Previous taxon: Grindelia nana
Next taxon: Grindelia squarrosa var. serrulata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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