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CYPERACEAE SEDGE FAMILY

S. Galen Smith, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; generally bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305]

Key to Cyperaceae

DULICHIUM

Joy Mastrogiuseppe


1 sp. (Latin: a kind of sedge) [Ball 2002 FNANM 23:252–253]

D. arundinaceum (L.) Britton var. arundinaceum THREE-WAY SEDGE
NATIVE
Perennial herb < 10 dm, rhizomes long. Stem: cylindric, hollow. Leaf: cauline, 3-ranked, proximal bladeless; blade 0–15 cm, (1.5)3–8 mm wide, flat; sheath not splitting, green. Inflorescence: spikes 1–17, from sheaths of bladed leaves, 6–30 cm; spikelets 3–10, 1.5–3 cm, 1.2–2.5 mm wide, flat; flower bracts 2-ranked, 4–8, 3–9.5 mm, lance-linear, veined, each with 1 flower in axil. Flower: bisexual; perianth bristles 6–9, ± 4–7.5 mm, ± > fruit, barbs reflexed; stamens 3; style 2-branched, base persistent. Fruit: 2–4 mm (except style base), linear-ellipsoid, flat, yellow.
2n=32. Uncommon. Lake, pond stream margins, bogs, wet meadows, often emergent; 700–2400 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada; to British Columbia, eastern North America. Known as fossil from Europe, eastern Asia. Jun–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton var. boreale Lepage (rhizomes less in diam, stems shorter, leaf blades narrower, anthers shorter) in Quebec.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dulichium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=93849, accessed on Sep 30 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dulichium arundinaceum var. arundinaceum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.