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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]
Key to Pinaceae
Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches ± whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud ± conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5–35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2–5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3–7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not.Key to Pinus
94 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: pine) Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10–30 cm; seed cone 8–15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in San Francisco Bay Area, northern Channel Islands.
Unabridged references: [Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39–53]
Unabridged note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).
Stem: trunk generally < 68 m, generally 2.2 m wide; branched in lower 1/2 when mature or not; mature bark furrows shallow, well spaced, forming plates, outer scales with ± yellow inner surfaces; mature crown short, conic or flat-topped; buds resinous, scales red-brown, dark-hairy. Leaf: (2)3 per bundle, 12–26 cm, < 2 mm thick, ± or not glaucous, deep yellow-green; sheath persistent. Seed cone: ± spreading or recurved, 7–15(18) cm, ovate to ± conic, when immature green-brown to dark purple; stalk < 2 cm, persistent with proximal scales; scales generally darker abaxially than adaxially, in open cone well separated to very crowded; knob prickles < 3 mm, straight or outcurved; bracts with light brown fringing hairs. Seed: < wing. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Because the neotype of Pinus ponderosa actually is a Washoe pine cone, a different name for Pacific Ponderosa pine would have been needed had the name Pinus ponderosa not been conserved with a different type by recent, special botanical legislation. Expanded author citation: Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson
Stem: mature bark light to medium yellow-brown. Leaf: 15–28 cm, thin, not glaucous, deep green, shiny, not glaucous; sheath persistent?. Seed cone: generally 8–18 cm, generally ovate, when immature light yellow-green, maturing closed cones green; scales black abaxially, brown adaxially, in open cone well separated; distal knob prickles generally outcurved. Seed: ± 1/3–1/5 wing.
Coastal-draining slopes of major mountain ranges, streambanks; 100–2700 m. North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area (Santa Cruz Mtns), Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges; southwestern Oregon, Washington. Some very large-coned plants in Santa Cruz Mountains, unassigned taxonomically in this treatment, may be indistinct from var. pacifica (then the earlier var. benthamiana (Hartw.) Vasey would be correct for the unassigned plants, with var. pacifica as a synonym), or may be a distinct var. within P. ponderosa (then var. benthamiana would be correct for the unassigned plants), or may be a distinct species (then P. benthamiana Hartw. would be correct for the unassigned plants); study needed. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Pinus ponderosa
Next taxon: Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 31 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pinus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=93845, accessed on Mar 31 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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