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PINACEAE PINE FAMILY

J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted

Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]

Key to Pinaceae

PINUS PINE

J. Robert Haller & Nancy J. Vivrette

Stem: young crown conic, mature often rounded or flat; branches ± whorled in young plants; young bark smooth, mature furrowed; bud ± conic, generally resinous. Leaf: generally 2.5–35 cm, generally sessile, in bundles of (1)2–5; bundles 1 in axils of alternate, awl-like bracts, base in a sometimes deciduous, scaly sheath of bracts, generally persistent several years. Seed cone: often whorled, generally maturing, opening 2nd year, persistent on stem or not; stalk 0 or < 16 cm; bract included, fused to scale at least basally, minute; scale tip reflexed, elongated 3–7 cm or often with a rounded or angled, often prickled knob < 3 cm. Seed: coat hard, woody or not.
2n=24.
94 species: northern hemisphere. (Latin: pine) Pinus pinea L., stone pine (leaves 2 per bundle, 10–30 cm; seed cone 8–15 cm, maturing in 3 years) cultivated in Europe for over 6000 years for edible seeds (pine nuts), reportedly naturalized in San Francisco Bay Area, northern Channel Islands.
Unabridged references: [Millar & Critchfield 1988 Madroño 35:39–53]
Unabridged note: Morphological, genetic study of relationships among Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus washoensis indicates that the taxa should be classified as 2 species, Pinus jeffreyi and Pinus ponderosa, and that the latter comprises three vars.: Pinus ponderosa var. pacifica (new taxon), Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa, and Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis (new combination).

Key to Pinus

P. ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson PONDEROSA PINE, WESTERN YELLOW PINE
NATIVE
Stem: trunk generally < 68 m, generally 2.2 m wide; branched in lower 1/2 when mature or not; mature bark furrows shallow, well spaced, forming plates, outer scales with ± yellow inner surfaces; mature crown short, conic or flat-topped; buds resinous, scales red-brown, dark-hairy. Leaf: (2)3[5] per bundle, 12–26 cm, < 2 mm thick, ± or not glaucous, deep yellow-green; sheath persistent. Seed cone: ± spreading or recurved, 7–15(18) cm, ovate to ± conic, when immature green-brown to dark purple; stalk < 2 cm, persistent with proximal scales; scales generally darker abaxially than adaxially, in open cone well separated to very crowded; knob prickles < 3 mm, straight or outcurved; bracts with light brown fringing hairs. Seed: < wing. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Because the neotype of Pinus ponderosa actually is a Washoe pine cone, a different name for Pacific Ponderosa pine would have been needed had the name Pinus ponderosa not been conserved with a different type by recent, special botanical legislation. Expanded author citation: Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson

P. ponderosa var. washoensis (H. Mason & Stockw.) J.R. Haller & Vivrette WASHOE PINE
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 35 m, < 1.5 m wide; mature bark generally medium to dark red- or yellow-brown, generally shallow-furrowed; mature crown short, conic or flat-topped. Leaf: 3 per bundle, 12–17 cm, 1.8–2.4 mm wide, very thick, light green, ± glaucous; sheath persistent. Seed cone: spreading, generally 5–11 cm, ovate or generally conic, when immature dark red-purple, maturing closed cones ± green to dark purple; stalk < 2 cm; scales adaxially generally brown, abaxially generally brown with black striations, occasionally black, in open cone very crowded; knob prickles varied, generally straight, parallel to cone edge.
Upper mixed-conifer to lower subalpine; (1400)2000–3000 m (generally hybridizes with Pinus ponderosa at 1700–2000 m; growing near but not hybridizing with Pinus jeffreyi at 1800–2100 m). High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Warner Mountains; to British Columbia, western Nevada. [Pinus washoensis H. Mason & Stockw.] [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Pinus quadrifolia

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 27 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pinus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=93844, accessed on Aug 27 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pinus ponderosa var. washoensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.