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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

KOPSIOPSIS GROUND-CONE

Alison E.L. Colwell

Perennial herb 7–30 cm, not green (holoparasite); roots 0. Stem: erect, simple, 1–many from spheric, tuber-like base attached to host root; tuber surface covered with polygonal plates 2–3 mm diam. Leaf: true leaves 0. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts densely overlapping; pedicels generally < 2 mm; bractlets on pedicel 0–2, linear. Flower: calyx cup-shaped, lobes tapered; corolla with ring of hairs in distal tube at base of stamens, upper lip entire or indented, margin incurved, lower lip 3-lobed; distal end of filament and anther hairy. Fruit: placenta 1 per valve.
2 species: western North America. (Jan Kops, Dutch botanist, 1765–1849) [Gilkey 1945 Oregon State Monogr Stud Bot 9]

Key to Kopsiopsis

K. hookeri (Walp.) Govaerts SMALL GROUND-CONE
NATIVE
Plant 7–16(20) cm. Inflorescence: 3–7 cm, pale yellow to ± purple throughout; largest bracts 7–11(14) mm. Flower: calyx lobes 2–4, 2–4 mm, tapered; corolla pale, lips 3–4 mm, erect, upper > lower, margins sparsely ciliate. Seed: ± 1.5 mm.
2n=82. Open woodland, mixed conifer forest, generally on Gaultheria shallon, occasionally on Arbutus menziesii, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi; < 700 m. North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay Area (Marin Co.); to British Columbia. [Boschniakia hookeri Walp.] Apr [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Next taxon: Kopsiopsis strobilacea

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Kopsiopsis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=93803, accessed on Sep 21 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Kopsiopsis hookeri Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.