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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Perennial herb 7–30 cm, not green (holoparasite); roots 0. Stem: erect, simple, 1–many from spheric, tuber-like base attached to host root; tuber surface covered with polygonal plates 2–3 mm diam. Leaf: true leaves 0. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts densely overlapping; pedicels generally < 2 mm; bractlets on pedicel 0–2, linear. Flower: calyx cup-shaped, lobes tapered; corolla with ring of hairs in distal tube at base of stamens, upper lip entire or indented, margin incurved, lower lip 3-lobed; distal end of filament and anther hairy. Fruit: placenta 1 per valve.Key to Kopsiopsis
2 species: western North America. (Jan Kops, Dutch botanist, 1765–1849) [Gilkey 1945 Oregon State Monogr Stud Bot 9]
Plant (6)10–30 cm. Inflorescence: 4–15 cm, generally red-brown to dark ± purple (pale); largest bracts 15–20 mm. Flower: calyx lobes 0(2–4), 3–7 mm, abruptly tapered; corolla generally purple (lobe margins pale), lips 5–6 mm, ± equal, lower lip generally spreading, margins glabrous. Seed: ± 2 mm.
2n=82. Open woodland, chaparral, generally on Arctostaphylos; < 3000 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges; southern Oregon, Baja California. [Boschniakia strobilacea A. Gray] Widely scattered, most common in Northwestern California, Transverse Ranges. A few populations intermediate to Kopsiopsis hookeri in corolla pubescence and bract shape occur in Siskiyou, Sonoma, Shasta cos. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Kopsiopsis hookeri
Next taxon: Orobanche
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 19 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Kopsiopsis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=93802, accessed on Apr 19 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Kopsiopsis strobilacea|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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