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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CHLOROPYRON SALTY BIRD'S-BEAK

Margriet Wetherwax & David C. Tank

Annual 10–60 cm, green, branches few to many; roots ± yellow. Leaf: alternate, sessile, 5–35 mm, entire, lanceolate to oblong. Inflorescence: spike, loose to dense, subtended by outer, leaf-like bracts; inner bract 1 per flower, ± leaf-like, entire or pinnately lobed. Flower: calyx = or slightly < corolla, sheath-like, generally cut completely to base abaxially, partially surrounding corolla tube laterally, notched ± 1 mm at tip; corolla 2-lipped, club-shaped, tubular below, expanded laterally, upper lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downward forming a hood enclosing anthers and style; lower lip <= upper lip, obscurely 3-lobed; fertile stamens 4 and staminodes 0, or 2 with adaxial pair of staminodes (attached deeper in corolla tube), anther sacs generally 2 per stamen, ± overlapping, tufted-hairy at base, unequal in size and placement; ovary 2-chambered, glabrous, ovules many, style bent near tip, stigma barely exserted. Seed: attached at side; seed coat tight-fitting, netted.
n=14,15,21.
4 species: saline and alkaline habitats, western North America. (Greek: salt plant) [Tank et al. 2009 Syst Bot 34:182–197] Formerly included in Cordylanthus. Close to Dicranostegia, together forming the Pseudocordylanthus clade (see Tank et al. 2009); distinguished by salt-tolerant ecology, inflorescence, calyx, stamens; flowers May–Nov.
Unabridged references: [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625]

Key to Chloropyron

C. maritimum (Benth.) A. Heller
NATIVE
Plant 10–40 cm, gray-green, glaucous, often tinged purple and salt-encrusted, generally ± short-hairy. Leaf: 5–25 mm, lance-linear, entire. Inflorescence: spike, 20–90 mm, many-flowered; inner bract 15–30 mm. Flower: calyx 15–25 mm; corolla 15–25 mm, white to cream, puberulent, lips pale to ± brown or purple-red; fertile stamens 4, anther sacs 2 (proximal pair) or 1 (distal pair). Seed: ± reniform, deeply netted, dark brown.
2n=30. [Cordylanthus maritimus Benth.] [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Chloropyron maritimum (Nutt. ex Benth.) A. Heller

C. maritimum (Benth.) A. Heller subsp. palustre (Behr) Tank & J.M. Egger POINT REYES SALTY BIRD'S-BEAK
NATIVE
Stem: branches 0–few, ascending, <= central spike. Inflorescence: dense; inner bracts slightly notched. Seed: 10–20, 2–3 mm.
Coastal salt marsh; < 10 m. n North Coast (Humboldt Co.), n Central Coast (Marin, Sonoma cos.); southwestern Oregon. [Cordylanthus maritimus subsp. palustris (Behr) T.I. Chuang & Heckard] May–Oct [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Chloropyron maritimum (Nutt. ex Benth.) A. Heller subsp. palustre (Behr) Tank & J.M. Egger

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Chloropyron, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=93766, accessed on Oct 23 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Chloropyron maritimum subsp. palustre Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.