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CACTACEAE CACTUS FAMILY

Bruce D. Parfitt, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to ± cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many [5], scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0–few.
± 125 genera, ± 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. [Parfitt & Gibson 2004 FNANM 4:92–257] Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha. —Scientific Editors: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Hunt 2006 The New Cactus Lexicon, DH Books, Milborne Port, England]

Key to Cactaceae

CORYPHANTHA BEEHIVE CACTUS
Generally erect, not branched, or if branched then forming low ± 50 cm diam clumps with up to 12[200] branches. Stem: not segmented; 2–15 cm, 2–15 cm diam, spheric, ovoid, or cylindric, soft-fleshy to firm, ribs 0, tubercles conic to cylindric, grooved along distal surface from base (axil) to spine cluster at tip. Spines: 3–95 per areole, < 1 mm diam, needle-like, smooth, straight [curved or hooked]; central spines 3–12. Flower: ± at stem tip, in axil of tubercle; 6–37[100] mm diam; perianth ± yellow-green to rose-pink or ± purple; ovary glabrous, spines 0, scales generally 0–few, fringed [entire]. Fruit: indehiscent, wide-ellipsoid to narrowly obovoid, spineless. Seed: 1.3–2.3 mm, reniform, pitted, black or brown.
16 species: western United States, Mexico. (Greek: crown + flower, referring to top flower position) [Taylor 1986 Cact Succ J Gr Brit 4:36–44]

Key to Coryphantha

Previous taxon: Carnegiea gigantea
Next taxon: Coryphantha alversonii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Coryphantha, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=9218, accessed on Dec 21 2014

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