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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous.
Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate- compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not.
Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel.
Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number.
Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [ berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Fl stalk" used instead of "pedicel", "peduncle", especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]
Key to Malvaceae
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome.Key to Sidalcea
Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence.
Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent.
Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel.
Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate- puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers.
Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin.
Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.
± 27 species: w North America: AK, Can, to Mex. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspp. of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.
Perennial, generally ± stellate-hairy, occasionally ± glaucous above.
Stem: erect or on other plants, base prostrate, decumbent- ascending to erect, hairs stellate, generally 4-rayed.
Leaf: generally lobed, abaxially stellate- puberulent; lobes narrowest at base, tips generally toothed, occasionally entire; stipules 2–3 mm, ± 1.1 mm wide.
Inflorescence: open, elongate, flowers generally 2–15(30); bracts leaf-like to linear, stellate- puberulent; flowering stalks 2–5(10) mm, stout.
Flower: calyx 7–10 mm, densely stellate- puberulent, lobes 1–7-veined; petals 1–2.5 cm, pink, pale-veined, shorter, darker in pistillate.
Fruit: segments (6)7–8, 3–4 mm, glandular-puberulent to ± stellate- puberulent ( glabrous), net-veined, sides, back pitted, beak 0.5–1 mm. [Sidalcea malviflora subsp. asprella (Greene) C.L. Hitchc.] [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Confused with Sidalcea elegans, Sidalcea celata, Sidalcea glaucescens, Sidalcea gigantea; needs study.
Plant 1–5(8) dm, caudex erect or 0, rhizomes > 10 cm, ± 2(3) mm diam, free-rooting.
Stem: base prostrate, decumbent- ascending, to erect, densely stellate- puberulent, ± sparser above.
Leaf: generally basal, 20–23 mm, 22–27 mm wide, cordate, generally 7-lobed; basal (deeply crenate to) lobed 1/2 to base; cauline generally 1–3, deeply lobed, lobes generally 3-toothed at tip; adaxially with hairs generally 2–4-rayed ( simple), bristly.
Inflorescence: ± scapose, ascending, 6–11(30) cm, generally 1-sided, open, stellate- puberulent, axis ± < 1 mm diam; bracts linear, 2–2.5 mm; flowering stalks generally 3–4 mm, stout; bisexual 2–9(19)-flowered; pistillate ± 9–14-flowered.
Flower: calyx ± 7 mm, densely stellate- puberulent, lobes 5 mm, 2.5 mm wide, 1–3-veined; petals generally 1.7–2(2.5) cm in bisexual, generally 0.9–1.1 cm, darker in pistillate.
Fruit: segments ± 8, beak ± 1 mm.
Open woodland, grassy margins, yellow-pine/Douglas-fir forest, generally serpentine; 460–1725 m. Northwestern California (especially High North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada;
Previous taxon: Sidalcea asprella subsp. asprella
Next taxon: Sidalcea calycosa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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