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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]
Key to Malvaceae
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome. Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence. Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel. Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate-puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers. Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin. Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.Key to Sidalcea
± 27 species: western North America: Alaska, Canada, to Mexico. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspecies of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.
Perennial herb, generally ± stellate-hairy, occasionally ± glaucous above. Stem: erect or on other plants, base prostrate, decumbent-ascending to erect, hairs stellate, generally 4-rayed. Leaf: generally lobed, abaxially stellate-puberulent; lobes narrowest at base, tips generally toothed, occasionally entire; stipules 2–3 mm, ± 1.1 mm wide. Inflorescence: open, elongate, flowers generally 2–15(30); bracts leaf-like to linear, stellate-puberulent; flowering stalks 2–5(10) mm, stout. Flower: calyx 7–10 mm, densely stellate-puberulent, lobes 1–7-veined; petals 1–2.5 cm, pink, pale-veined, shorter, darker in pistillate. Fruit: segments (6)7–8, 3–4 mm, glandular-puberulent to ± stellate-puberulent (glabrous), net-veined, sides, back pitted, beak 0.5–1 mm. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Confused with Sidalcea elegans, Sidalcea celata, Sidalcea glaucescens, Sidalcea gigantea; needs study.
Plant 1–5(8) dm, caudex erect or 0, rhizomes > 10 cm, ± 2(3) mm diam, free-rooting. Stem: base prostrate, decumbent-ascending, to erect, densely stellate-puberulent, ± sparser above. Leaf: generally basal, 20–23 mm, 22–27 mm wide, cordate, generally 7-lobed; basal (deeply crenate to) lobed 1/2 to base; cauline generally 1–3, deeply lobed, lobes generally 3-toothed at tip; adaxially with hairs generally 2–4-rayed (simple), bristly. Inflorescence: ± scapose, ascending, 6–11(30) cm, generally 1-sided, open, stellate-puberulent, axis ± < 1 mm diam; bracts linear, 2–2.5 mm; flowering stalks generally 3–4 mm, stout; bisexual 2–9(19)-flowered; pistillate ± 9–14-flowered. Flower: calyx ± 7 mm, densely stellate-puberulent, lobes 5 mm, 2.5 mm wide, 1–3-veined; petals generally 1.7–2(2.5) cm in bisexual, generally 0.9–1.1 cm, darker in pistillate. Fruit: segments ± 8, beak ± 1 mm.
Open woodland, grassy margins, yellow-pine/Douglas-fir forest, generally serpentine; 460–1725 m. Northwestern California (especially High North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada; southwestern Oregon. [Sidalcea malviflora (DC.) A. Gray subsp. nana (Jeps.) C.L. Hitchc.] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Confused with Sidalcea asprella subsp. asprella, Sidalcea celata, Sidalcea elegans, Sidalcea glaucescens; needs study. Type specimen has 2–3 flowers per inflorescence.
Previous taxon: Sidalcea asprella subsp. asprella
Next taxon: Sidalcea calycosa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 4 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sidalcea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=91786, accessed on Jul 4 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sidalcea asprella subsp. nana|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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