Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon


Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae

Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome. Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence. Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel. Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate-puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers. Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin. Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.
± 27 species: western North America: Alaska, Canada, to Mexico. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspecies of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.

Key to Sidalcea

S. asprella Greene
Perennial herb, generally ± stellate-hairy, occasionally ± glaucous above. Stem: erect or on other plants, base prostrate, decumbent-ascending to erect, hairs stellate, generally 4-rayed. Leaf: generally lobed, abaxially stellate-puberulent; lobes narrowest at base, tips generally toothed, occasionally entire; stipules 2–3 mm, ± 1.1 mm wide. Inflorescence: open, elongate, flowers generally 2–15(30); bracts leaf-like to linear, stellate-puberulent; flowering stalks 2–5(10) mm, stout. Flower: calyx 7–10 mm, densely stellate-puberulent, lobes 1–7-veined; petals 1–2.5 cm, pink, pale-veined, shorter, darker in pistillate. Fruit: segments (6)7–8, 3–4 mm, glandular-puberulent to ± stellate-puberulent (glabrous), net-veined, sides, back pitted, beak 0.5–1 mm. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Confused with Sidalcea elegans, Sidalcea celata, Sidalcea glaucescens, Sidalcea gigantea; needs study.

Plant 3–10(12) dm, caudex present or 0, rhizomes < 10(30) cm. Stem: often weak, on other plants, base stellate-hairy. Leaf: basal, cauline, all ± alike, gradually reduced upwards, ± lobed, lobe tips generally toothed; adaxially with generally simple hairs to stellate-puberulent. Inflorescence: erect, open, elongate, occasionally 1-sided, generally 8–15(30)-flowered; lowest bract generally leaf-like, ± 15 mm, 12 mm wide, bracts above linear, ± 3 mm, generally forked, < flower stalk; flowering stalks 2–5(8) mm, stout. Flower: calyx 7–10 mm, densely stellate-puberulent, lobes generally 6 mm, 3.5 mm wide, veins 5–7, 3 prominent; petals of bisexual flowers 2–2.5 cm, of pistillate generally 1–2 cm. Fruit: segments (6)7–8, beak ± 0.5–0.8 mm.
2n=20,40,60. Open woodland, dry rocky slopes, foothill woodland, lower conifer forest; (100)200–900(1800) m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c High Sierra Nevada; southwestern Oregon. [Sidalcea malviflora (DC.) A. Gray subsp. asprella (Greene) C.L. Hitchc.] May–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Confused with Sidalcea asprella subsp. nana, Sidalcea elegans, Sidalcea glaucescens. Confused especially with Sidalcea gigantea, Sidalcea celata; needs study. May be mistaken easily with young plants of Sidalcea gigantea before stems, rhizomes fully developed, and fruits ± match in both species. Leaves of Sidalcea celata generally have adaxially simple or 2-branched hairs, those of the other 2 species have minute stellate hairs. Sidalcea gigantea has long reflexed bristles at stem base and well-developed rhizomes; Sidalcea celata generally has shorter simple hairs at stem base but rarely has similar stellate hairs instead; Sidalcea asprella has stellate hairs, but hairs can be short scabrous or longer-softer at stem base. All 3 species occur in Shasta Co., some specimens there may not be easily determined to sp. The typical subsp. appears to be replaced by Sidalcea asprella subsp. nana in Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Oregon; it is especially difficult to be certain of identifications in this area.

Previous taxon: Sidalcea asprella
Next taxon: Sidalcea asprella subsp. nana


Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sidalcea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sidalcea asprella subsp. asprella Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.