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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb. Stem: erect to prostrate; internode solid to hollow. Leaf: generally cauline; ligule hairy. Inflorescence: generally panicle-like, open; branches spreading to ascending; spikelets subsessile to stalked. Spikelet: falling as 1 unit; glumes strongly unequal, lower << upper or 0, upper glume silky-hairy; florets 2, lower floret sterile or staminate, lemma ± = upper glume, upper floret fertile, lemma membranous to thick, firm, smooth, ± white in fruit, margin flat, tip blunt, palea ± = lemma.
22 species: warm temperate, subtropics, southeastern Asia, Africa. (Greek: a cereal, probably millet) [Wipff 2007 FNANM 25:490–492; Zizka 1990 Mitt Inst Allg Bot Hamburg 23:563–572]
Annual or short-lived perennial herb. Stem: decumbent to erect, (2)4–15 dm; internodes glabrous or with swollen-based hairs; sheath 3–9 cm, glabrous; ligule hairs 0.5–1.5 mm; blade 3–27 cm, generally 2–9 mm wide, upper surface glabrous. Inflorescence: (4)6–22 cm; 1° branches 2.5–6(11) cm, glabrous to puberulent; spikelet stalk 0.5–5 mm, ± wiry, hairy. Spikelet: 2–5.5 mm, ± 1–2 mm wide, ovate to elliptic; lower glume < 1.5 mm, 0–1-veined, upper glume 2–5 mm, densely silky-hairy, hairs <= 7 mm, rose to ± purple fading to pink or white in age; lower floret staminate or sterile, lemma ± like upper glume, 5-veined, tip minutely lobed, palea ± = lemma; upper floret ± 2/3 length lower floret, lemma firm, ± white, shiny; anthers 3.
2n=36. Disturbed areas, slopes; < 850 m. Outer North Coast Ranges, San Joaquin Valley, s Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges; to southern United States; native to South Africa, western Asia. [Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C.E. Hubb.; Rhynchelytrum roseum (Nees) Stapf & C.E. Hubb.; Tricholaena rosea Nees] Used for soil stabilization. All year [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Melinis
Next taxon: Muhlenbergia
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Melinis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=91775, accessed on Jul 30 2014
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