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Mihai Costea, family description, key to genera, revised by Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Chenopodiaceae


G. Frederic Hrusa & Dieter H. Wilken

Annual to subshrub, generally erect, glabrous to tomentose. Leaf: alternate or lower ± opposite, ± thread-like to lanceolate, flat to cylindric, fleshy or not. Inflorescence: spikes, simple or branched; bracts leaf-like; flowers 1–7 per axil. Flower: bisexual or pistillate, sessile; calyx lobes 5, incurved, keeled; tubercled, winged or not in fruit; stamens 5; stigmas 2–3. Fruit: ± compressed-spheric. Seed: horizontal.
± 15 species: western North America, Eurasia. (Wilhelm D. Koch, German physician, botanist, 1771–1849) [Chu & Sanderson 2008 Madroño 55:251–256] Native species recently treated in Neokochia, Kochia scoparia in Bassia.

Key to Kochia

K. scoparia (L.) Schrad. subsp. scoparia
Annual 20–120 cm. Stem: simple to much-branched, glabrous to spreading-hairy. Leaf: 8–50 mm, 1–6 mm wide, flat, glabrous to appressed-hairy, generally 3–5-veined below middle. Inflorescence: branched spike, short- to densely long-hairy, hairs < to > flowers; flowers 1–7 per axil; hairs generally hiding flowers in immature inflorescence. Flower: calyx glabrous to thinly appressed-hairy, lobe margins generally bristly (glabrous); bisexual flowers with tubercles or wings < 2 mm in fruit.
Disturbed places, fields, roadsides; < 2300 m. Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, n San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert; to eastern United States; native to Eurasia. Immature plants much like Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Kuntze. If recognized taxonomically, a cultivated form with linear to thread-like leaves, short internodes, inflorescence hairs < flowers, rarely escaping in San Joaquin Valley, South Coast (expected elsewhere), assignable to Kochia scoparia subsp. culta (Voss) O. Bolòs & Vigo. Other subspecies in Eurasia. Aug–Nov {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Bassia scoparia var. culta Voss; Kochia iranica Bornm., misappl.; Kochia scoparia subsp. culta (Voss) O. Bolòs & Vigo; Kochia scoparia var. subvillosa Moq.; Kochia scoparia f. trichophylla (Voss) Schinz & Thell.; Kochia trichophylla Voss]

Previous taxon: Kochia californica
Next taxon: Krascheninnikovia


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Kochia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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click for enlargement Kochia scoparia subsp. scoparia
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2001 CDFA

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Kochia scoparia subsp. scoparia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.