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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub [shrub, tree]. Stem: generally erect, bristly or stellate-hairy to ± glabrous. Leaf: generally simple, cordate, palmate-lobed or -divided or not, ± entire to dentate or crenate-dentate, palmate-veined, tip acute or acuminate; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: raceme, open, or flowers 1 in leaf axils; flowering stalks often jointed in upper 1/3; bractlets 8–10(20), free or basally fused, generally narrow, persistent. Flower: generally showy, open <= 1 day; calyx 5-lobed; petals white, yellow, lavender, red, or other colors, often with dark basal spot; filament tube 5-toothed at tip, anthers scattered on upper 1/2 below tip; style distally 5-branched, stigmas head-like. Fruit: capsule loculicidal, 5-chambered, ovoid or oblong, glabrous or hairy. Seed: several per chamber, hairy or ± glabrous.
200 species: especially America, Africa, Asia, Australia. (Greek: mallow) Other taxa, such as Hibiscus syriacus L., rose-of-Sharon, cultivated, possibly escaped.
Unabridged etymology: (Greek: hibiscos, a name for a mallow)
Unabridged references: [Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:192–232]

Key to Hibiscus

H. lasiocarpos Cav. var. occidentalis (Torr.) A. Gray WOOLLY ROSE-MALLOW
Perennial herb, subshrub from caudex, generally rhizomed, hairy. Stem: many from base, prostrate to erect, 1–2 m. Leaf: petiole to 10 cm; blade 6–10 cm, cordate, shallowly 3–5-lobed or entire, toothed, acuminate; ± densely stellate-hairy abaxially, adaxially; stipules 1–4 mm. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in leaf axils; flowering stalks 1–8 cm; bractlets 10, ± 2.5 cm, free ± to base, >= calyx in bud, flower, forming beak in bud, > calyx in fruit. Flower: calyx 2.5–3 cm, bell-shaped, sepals fused 1/2, veiny in fruit; petals 6–10 cm, white with rose-red center. Fruit: 2.5–3 cm, filling calyx, ± spheric to short-cylindric, stellate-hairy. Seed: ± 3 mm, spheric, glabrous.
2n=38. Freshwater wetlands, wet banks, marshes; < 100 m. Cascade Range Foothills, c&s Sacramento Valley, deltaic Great Central Valley. [Hibiscus californicus Kellogg; Hibiscus lasiocarpos var. californicus (Kellogg) L.H. Bailey; Hibiscus moscheutos L. var. occidentalis Torr.; Hibiscus lasiocarpus Cav., orth. var.] Threatened by riverbank alteration; rest of sp. (typical var.) no nearer California than northwestern Mexico, New Mexico. Jul–Nov [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged note: Distinguished from Hibiscus lasiocarpos Cav. var. lasiocarpos (nearest localities in northwestern Mexico, New Mexico) by smaller leaves, clonal-rhizomed habit, less hardiness.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Hibiscus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Hibiscus lasiocarpos var. occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.