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Key to families | Table of families and genera
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Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel", "peduncle", especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]
Key to Malvaceae
Annual, perennial herb; with taproot, clustered fleshy roots, caudex, adventitious roots, or occasionally shallow rhizome. Stem: ± decumbent or generally erect, some occasionally stolon-like; erect stem, branches terminating in inflorescence. Leaf: generally fewer above, occasionally ± rosetted; petioles below generally >> petioles above; blades below generally crenate to shallowly lobed, blades above often deeply palmate-lobed or -divided; stipules generally persistent. Inflorescence: head, spike, or raceme, in panicle or not, generally more open in fruit; bracts 2, generally stipule-like, occasionally involucre-like, united at base to ± entirely; bractlets 0(3), generally not in involucel. Flower: flowers generally bisexual, protandrous, occasionally functionally unisexual (occasionally, plants with either bisexual or pistillate flowers in a given sp.); calyx lobes >= tube; petals spreading or erect, purple or rose-pink to white, generally with some pale veins, base generally also paler than tips (occasionally darker), tip ± notched or fringed, petals on pistillate flowers shorter, darker, often <= 10 mm; filament tube generally stellate-puberulent, anthers near top, in generally 2 concentric series, generally pink, ± purple, or white; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches, conspicuous in pistillate flowers. Fruit: segments generally 5–10, indehiscent, puberulent, glandular, or glabrous, beaked or not, side walls generally ± thin. Seed: 1, generally filling chamber, reniform, glabrous.Key to Sidalcea
± 27 species: western North America: Alaska, Canada, to Mexico. (Greek: combination of Sida, Alcea, 2 other names for mallows) [Andreasen & Baldwin 2003 Amer J Bot 90:436–444; Hill 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:783–791] Some species highly variable, especially in leaves, growth stage; mature plants with fruit minimize considerable problems in identification, as does knowledge of plant base, underground parts; needs study.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1957 Univ Washington Publ Biol 18:1–96; Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:412–416]
Unabridged note: This treatment differs from that in TJM (1993) in addition of new taxa and in segregation as species of former, primarily inland subspecies of Sidalcea malviflora, now primarily a coastal entity.
Plant 4–8(10) dm, caudex present or 0, rhizomes 0. Stem: generally erect, occasionally in age glaucous, base with bristles (or stellate hairs). Leaf: petiole 15–18 cm; basal generally crenate to shallowly 7-lobed, upper few, smaller, 5-lobed, lobes ± 3.5 cm, 4 mm wide, ± entire; hairs ± 1.5 mm adaxially, stellate, 6-rayed, 1.5 mm abaxially; stipules ± 3 mm, generally deciduous. Inflorescence: open, generally branched, elongate, ± 1-sided, (5)10–12(23)-flowered; axis sparsely stellate-puberulent; bracts ± 3 mm, < flowering stalks, calyx, puberulent, deciduous. Flower: calyx (7)9–12 mm, ± uniformly densely stellate-puberulent, generally 7-nerved, lobes 6–8(9) mm, 3–6 mm wide, abruptly acute (acuminate); petals pale pink-lavender, in bisexual flowers 2–2.5(3.1) cm, in pistillate generally 1–2 cm; filament tube generally 8–10 mm. Fruit: segments ± 7, 3–4 mm, minutely glandular-puberulent especially in youth, net-veined, sides, back deeply pitted, honeycombed, outer edges occasionally sharp, beak ± 1 mm.
2n=60. Open oak woodland, serpentine or not; 150–370 m. Inner North Coast Ranges (Shasta, Tehama cos.), Cascade Range, n Sacramento Valley. [Sidalcea malviflora subsp. celata (Jeps.) C.L. Hitchc.] May–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Confused with Sidalcea asprella, Sidalcea gigantea, others; needs study.
Previous taxon: Sidalcea calycosa subsp. rhizomata
Next taxon: Sidalcea covillei
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 7 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Sidalcea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=91700, accessed on Mar 7 2014
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