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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera

Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Lamiaceae


Andrew C. Sanders, Mark A. Elvin & Mark S. Brunell

Annual to shrub, ± gland-dotted, scented. Leaf: entire to serrate, margin flat or wavy; petioles 0 or present, often grading into blade. Inflorescence: flowers in compact clusters of >= 1 per main stem, these occasionally arrayed in panicles (rarely spikes); flowers 3–100 per cluster; bracts generally erect in a cup-like involucre or reflexed, reduced in size inward, leaf-like to membranous in texture, green or straw-colored to rose or purple, linear to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse. Flower: calyx 5-lobed; 4–25 mm; corolla white to purple or yellow to red, weakly bilateral, upper lip erect, 2-lobed, lower lip recurved, 3-lobed; stamens 4; style unequally 2-lobed.
> 30 species: western North America. (Latin: small Monarda) [Elvin & Sanders 2009 Novon 19:315–343; Epling 1925 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 12:1–106; Jepson 1943 Fl California 431–444] Complex; study needed; many taxa intergrade; flower cluster width and bract orientation given for pressed specimens. Leaf length including petiole, if present. M. Brunell authored Monardella follettii (in part), Monardella odoratissima (in part), Monardella palmeri, Monardella purpurea, Monardella sheltonii (in part), Monardella stebbinsii, Monardella villosa (in part).
Unabridged references: [Abrams 1951 Ill Fl Pac Sts V III:648–660]

Key to Monardella

M. undulata Benth.
Subshrub to shrub, erect, tufted, or mounded, < 2.5 m diam, strongly scented. Stem: few to many, 10–100 cm, branching distal to middle, sparsely hairy to densely white-tomentose. Leaf: clustered at nodes, 10–40 mm, linear to (ob)ovate, fleshy or not, green to appearing glaucous, sparsely hairy to densely tomentose, margin wavy. Inflorescence: flower clusters 1–several in terminal spikes, 10–30 mm wide, leaves subtending flower clusters present or 0; bracts 7–15 mm, 3–10 mm wide, papery, lanceolate to ovate, soft-hairy, straw-colored or purple. Flower: calyx hairy to woolly; corolla straw-colored or lavender to rose-purple. [Online Interchange]

M. undulata subsp. crispa (Elmer) Elvin & A.C. Sanders CRISP MONARDELLA
Subshrub to shrub, tufted or in mounds < 2.5 m wide. Stem: few to many, 10–50 cm, densely white-tomentose, hairs generally wavy. Leaf: 10–40 mm (including petiole, (3)5–7(8) mm), 5–15 mm wide, oblanceolate to (ob)ovate, fleshy, obtuse, sparsely to densely tomentose, appearing glaucous, margin wavy. Inflorescence: flower clusters 1–5 in terminal spike, 15–30 mm wide; generally subtended by leaves; bracts 7–15 mm, 3–8 mm wide, broadly lanceolate to (ob)ovate, soft-hairy, straw-colored or purple. Flower: calyx 6–7 mm, densely tomentose; corolla 10–14(16) mm, rose-purple.
Active dunes; < 100 m. s Central Coast (San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara cos.). [Monardella crispa Elmer; Monardella undulata var. crispa (Elmer) Epling] Intergrades with Monarella undulata subsp. undulata in areas of overlap and transitional habitats. Threatened by coastal development. Apr–Nov [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Monardella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Monardella undulata subsp. crispa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.