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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, small, fleshy, generally glabrous; caudex generally underground, unbranched; roots glabrous with bulblets or plantlets or not. Leaf: generally 1 per caudex per year, divided into 2 facing parts with a common stalk,(0)1 sterile and 1(2) fertile (fertile occasionally aborted); sterile photosynthetic part (trophophore) separated from spore-bearing part (sporophore) at to well above ground level; trophophore simple to compound, veins free and forked or netted with included veinlets; sporophore simple to compound, or 0 in young plants. Sporangia: dehiscent into 2 valves, ± 1 mm wide, thick-walled.
10 genera, 80–100 species: ± worldwide, generally rare or overlooked. [Hauk et al. 2003 Molec Phylogen Evol 28:131–151; Kato 1987 Gard Bull Straits Settlem 40:1–14] —Scientific Editors: Alan R. Smith, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged note: Distantly related to most (leptosporangiate) ferns. Haploid (gametophyte) generation underground. Both diploid and haploid generations obligately mycorrhizal. The family Psilotaceae (whisk ferns, 2 genera), sister to Ophioglossaceae, is represented in California (South Coast) by 1 (of 2 total) apparently introduced species, Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. Psilotum is easily distinguished by the dichotomously branching, almost leafless green stems, lack of roots, and large (2–3 mm) 3-lobed sporangia; sporangia are borne on the adaxial (upper) side of a minute (± 1 mm) forked leaf. Pantrop, subtrop (nearest native populations in Arizona and in Sonora, Mexico); expected in cultivation areas, especially at bases of old palms, possibly brought in on root masses as subterranean gametophytes. [Pryer et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:1582–1598]
Key to Ophioglossaceae
Roots smooth, pale, generally with bulblets or plantlets. Leaf: trophophore simple, linear to lanceolate or cordate, not midribbed, entire, firm, herbaceous, tip rounded, acuminate, or often mucronate, veins netted with included free branched or unbranched veinlets; sporophore generally > sterile, unbranched, slender. Sporangia: in 2 rows, sunken in a linear, long-stalked axis.Key to Ophioglossum
20–25 species: generally warm temperate, tropics. (Greek: snake's tongue, from extended sporophore of leaf) Incl highest chromosome numbers known in vascular plants.
Previous taxon: Botrypus virginianus
Next taxon: Ophioglossum californicum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Feb 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ophioglossum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=9039, accessed on Feb 28 2015
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