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TOFIELDIACEAE FALSE-ASPHODEL FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal

Perennial herb, rhizomes short, spreading. Stem: erect, ± glabrous near base, dense-glandular-hairy above [or not]. Leaf: generally basal, ± 2-ranked, ± linear; cauline 0–3, on lower 1/3 of stem, sheathing. Inflorescence: terminal raceme, ± head- or spike-like, generally longer in fruit. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, white to ± green or ± yellow; stamens 6, filaments ± flat, glabrous, wider at base, anthers attached at base; ovary superior, stalked, 3-lobed, chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule [follicle], 3-beaked from persistent styles, septicidal below, loculicidal above. Seed: ± brown; coat white, loose, spongy, inflated; appendage generally at 1 end, rarely 0 or at both ends.
3 genera, 18 species: southeastern United States, northwestern South America, northern temperate. Tofieldia occidentalis moved to Triantha. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

TRIANTHA
Stem: scapose, 30–80 cm. Inflorescence: axes ± glandular-hairy; flowers in clusters of 2–7, each cluster subtended by cluster of ± few bracts; bractlets 3, fused, appearing calyx-like. Flower: perianth parts in ± dissimilar whorls, free, persistent. Fruit: ovoid to wide-ellipsoid.
4 species: North America, Japan. (Greek: 3, flower, from flowers in clusters of 3s) [Packer 2003 FNANM 26:61–64]
Unabridged etymology: (Greek: tri, 3 and anthos, flower, alluding to flowers aggregated in 3s)
Unabridged references: [Packer 1993 Novon 3:278–279]

T. occidentalis (S. Watson) R.R. Gates subsp. occidentalis
NATIVE
Leaf: 5–20 cm, 3–8 mm wide. Inflorescence: 1–3 cm (to 7 cm in fruit), ± spheric to ovoid-cylindric; pedicels 1–6 mm. Flower: perianth 3–6 mm, parts oblong-ovate, inner narrower, > outer; stamens ± = perianth; styles 1.3–3 mm. Fruit: 5–9 mm. Seed: generally 1, 0.5–1.5 mm, 1–3 × longer than wide, red-brown; appendages (0)1(2).
2n=30. Wet meadows, bogs; < 3100 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada; southwestern Oregon. [Tofieldia occidentalis S. Watson subsp. occidentalis] Jul–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Other subspecies. Oregon to Alaska, Montana, Wyoming.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 29 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Triantha, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=89271, accessed on Aug 29 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Triantha occidentalis subsp. occidentalis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.