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ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae

CHYLISMIA
Annual, occasionally perennial herb, from taproot. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, lanceolate to ovate, pinnately lobed with large terminal lobe (simple), margin dentate to entire, abaxial face and/or margin with ± conspicuous brown oil cells, long-petioled. Inflorescence: erect or nodding raceme. Flower: generally opening at dawn (occasionally at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed; petals 4, yellow or white (often fading orange-red) or lavender, generally fading red, if yellow generally strongly ultraviolet reflective, often with 1+ red spots near base, occasionally non-reflective near base or throughout; stamens (4)8, longer opposite sepals, anthers attached at middle, filaments long-ciliate or glabrous, pollen grains 3-angled at 20×; stigma entire and spheric or rarely conic-peltate, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated or ± = anthers and self-pollinated. Fruit: straight to curved, not twisted or coiled, valves with obvious midrib, pedicelled. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, lenticular to narrowly ovoid, with ± pronounced membranous margin when immature.
16 species: western North America. (Greek: juice) [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Incl in Camissonia in TJM (1993).
Unabridged references: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161–396]

Key to Chylismia

C. walkeri A. Nelson subsp. tortilis (Jeps.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch
NATIVE
Annual, short-lived perennial herb; hairs spreading, in inflorescence also glandular or bristly. Stem: 10–60 cm. Leaf: generally basal, simple to 2-pinnate, 30–220 mm, generally purple-dotted; lateral leaflets < 30 mm. Inflorescence: erect; buds drooping. Flower: opening at dawn; hypanthium 1–1.5 mm; sepals 1.5–4 mm, generally purple-dotted, in bud tips free, ± terminal; petals 3–6 mm, yellow. Fruit: ascending or spreading, 10–45 mm, 1.2–1.8 mm wide, cylindric, straight or curved; valves generally twisted; pedicel 5–30 mm. Seed: 0.6–1.2 mm.
2n=14. Rocky places near cliffs, along ephemeral streams, creosote-bush scrub to pinyon/juniper woodland; 600–1800 m. White and Inyo Mountains, n Mojave Desert (Inyo, ne San Bernardino cos.); to southwestern Utah. [Camissonia walkeri (A. Nelson) P.H. Raven subsp. tortilis (Jeps.) P.H. Raven] Self-pollinated. Other variety outside California. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Oenothera scapoidea Torr. & A. Gray var. tortilis Jeps.; Oenothera walkeri (A. Nelson) P.H. Raven subsp. tortilis (Jeps.) P.H. Raven]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Chylismia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=89254, accessed on Apr 16 2014

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Bioregions in which Chylismia walkeri subsp. tortilis occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.