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ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae

CHYLISMIA
Annual, occasionally perennial herb, from taproot. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, lanceolate to ovate, pinnately lobed with large terminal lobe (simple), margin dentate to entire, abaxial face and/or margin with ± conspicuous brown oil cells, long-petioled. Inflorescence: erect or nodding raceme. Flower: generally opening at dawn (occasionally at dusk); sepals 4, reflexed; petals 4, yellow or white (often fading orange-red) or lavender, generally fading red, if yellow generally strongly ultraviolet reflective, often with 1+ red spots near base, occasionally non-reflective near base or throughout; stamens (4)8, longer opposite sepals, anthers attached at middle, filaments long-ciliate or glabrous, pollen grains 3-angled at 20×; stigma entire and spheric or rarely conic-peltate, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated or ± = anthers and self-pollinated. Fruit: straight to curved, not twisted or coiled, valves with obvious midrib, pedicelled. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, lenticular to narrowly ovoid, with ± pronounced membranous margin when immature.
16 species: western North America. (Greek: juice) [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Incl in Camissonia in TJM (1993).
Unabridged references: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161–396]

Key to Chylismia

C. claviformis (Torr. & Frém.) A. Heller
NATIVE
Annual. Stem: 3–70 cm. Leaf: generally basal, generally 1-pinnate; terminal leaflet 8–90 mm, lanceolate to cordate; lateral leaflets < 25 mm or 0. Inflorescence: nodding. Flower: generally opening near dusk; hypanthium 1–6.5 mm; sepals 2–8 mm, free tips in bud present or not; petals 1.5–8 mm, yellow or white; stamens ± equal. Fruit: ascending or spreading, 8–38 mm, wider to tip, straight or curved; pedicel 4–40 mm. Seed: 0.6–1.5 mm.
2n=14. [Camissonia claviformis (Torr. & Frém.) P.H. Raven] Cross-pollinated; most complex, widespread sp. in genus; 11 subspecies, 8 in California. [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Oenothera claviformis Torr. & Frém.]

C. claviformis subsp. integrior (P.H. Raven) W.L. Wagner & Hoch
NATIVE
Plant strigose proximally, generally glandular-hairy or ± glabrous distally. Leaf: terminal leaflet < 70 mm, ± ovate, base generally ± cordate; lateral leaflets 0–few, small. Flower: hypanthium 3–6 mm; sepal tips not free in bud, or inconspicuously so; petals 4.5–8 mm, white fading purple, bases purple-dotted or not.
Dry flats, desert scrub; 1200–2000 m. East of Sierra Nevada; central Oregon, Nevada. [Camissonia claviformis subsp. integrior (P.H. Raven) P.H. Raven] Intergrades with Camissonia claviformis subsp. aurantiaca, Camissonia claviformis subsp. cruciformis; hybridizes with Camissonia brevipes. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Oenothera claviformis subsp. integrior P.H. Raven]

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Next taxon: Chylismia claviformis subsp. lancifolia

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Chylismia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=89250, accessed on Oct 30 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Chylismia claviformis subsp. integrior Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.