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ONAGRACEAE EVENING-PRIMROSE FAMILY

Warren L. Wagner & Peter C. Hoch, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Warren L. Wagner, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]

Key to Onagraceae

TARAXIA
Perennial herb, stem 0, from thick taproot that may branch in age producing multiple rosettes. Leaf: basal, simple, ovate or lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, nearly entire to deeply pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils, erect in bud. Flower: radial, opening at dawn; sepals 4, reflexed separately; petals 4, yellow (or white), unspotted, strongly ultraviolet reflective (non-reflective at base), fading ± purple or ± red; stamens 8, longer ones opposite sepals, anthers attached at base, pollen grains 3-angled except in polyploid taxa (visible with hand lens); ovary chambers 4, stigma hemispheric, generally > anthers and cross-pollinated (or ± = anthers and self-pollinated), sterile projection of ovary persistent with fertile part in fruit, without abscission lines at juncture between hypanthium and fertile part of ovary. Fruit: cylindric-ovoid, ± angled to nearly cylindric, walls generally thin, distended by seeds, tip gradually attenuate into a slender sterile portion (0.4)1.5–18 cm, occasionally persistent for > 1 year, sessile. Seed: in 2 rows per chamber, elongate-ovoid, cylindric to oblong-ellipsoid, pitted or coarsely papillate, giving a shaggy appearance.
4 species: California to Washington & southwestern Canada, Nevada to Colorado (especially California Floristic Province). (Leaves similar to Leontodon taraxacoides) [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Incl in Camissonia in TJM (1993).
Unabridged references: [Raven 1969 Contr US Natl Herb 37:161–396]

Key to Taraxia

T. ovata (Torr. & A. Gray) Small
NATIVE
Plant ± fleshy. Leaf: blade 30–150 mm, narrowly elliptic to ovate, ± entire to wavy, veins and margin with short, erect hairs; petiole 8–150 mm. Flower: hypanthium 2–3 mm; sepals 11–19 mm; petals 8–23 mm; sterile tip of ovary 25–180 mm. Fruit: 11–30 mm, linear-oblanceolate, ± straight or slightly curved, swollen by seeds, papery, tardily dehiscent, ± sessile. Seed: 1.8–2.2 mm, papillate, brown.
2n=14. Grassy fields, generally clay soil; < 500 m. Northwestern California, Central Western California; southwestern Oregon. [Oenothera ovata Torr. & A. Gray; Camissonia ovata (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven] Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Oenothera ovata Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray; Camissonia ovata (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Taraxia ovata (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) Small

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 29 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Taraxia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=89233, accessed on Aug 29 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Taraxia ovata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.