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Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae

Annual, from taproot. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or erect; base generally ± brown or ± purple; branches 0 or below middle. Leaf: basal; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: ± raceme-like; bract 1 per flower, small; pedicel generally thread-like. Flower: inverted or not; sepals linear to triangular; corolla ± radial or 2-lipped, lobes 5; filaments free at base, fused into tube around style distally, appendages attached to a stalk or directly on 2 adjacent filaments, each with 2–12 cells, anthers free, all alike; ovary superior to 1/2 inferior, hemispheric to obconic, nectary glands 3, mounded or donut-like, on free part of ovary, stigma 2-lobed, papillate. Fruit: generally > hypanthium, hemispheric to fusiform, top pointed or rounded, chambers 2; open at top generally by 2 valves (or circumscissile). Seed: elliptic to oblong.
18 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. (Greek: thread-like branch) [Morin 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:397–400] In descriptions, "filaments" including both free and fused parts thereof.
Unabridged references: [McVaugh 1942 N Amer Flora 32A:1–134]
Unabridged note: Taxonomic changes from TJM (1993) based on ITS, atpB, morphology. Parishella californica nested within Nemacladus, in which it is here treated.

Key to Nemacladus

N. tenuis (McVaugh) Morin
Erect, 9–20 cm, branches many, from base or 1.5–3.5 cm above. Stem: spreading, base silver-gray. Leaf: 5–15 mm, lanceolate, toothed or pinnately lobed, glabrous or coarsely hairy, narrowed to short petiole; basal in age ± yellow or yellow-green, not ± purple. Inflorescence: axis weakly zigzag; bracts 0.5–3 mm, lance-linear to ovate, spreading to reflexed or appressed to pedicel; pedicels 8–15(18) mm, ± 0.1 mm diam, spreading to ascending, double-curved, upturned at tip. Flower: inverted; sepals acute, erect; corolla conspicuously 2-lipped or lobes ± alike, tube bell-shaped; filaments arched, appendage a narrow stalk 0.2–0.4 mm attached 1/2 to base on proximal free part of filament, cells tubular, blunt, anthers 0.4–0.5 mm; ovary 1/4–1/2-inferior. Fruit: 1–2.5 mm, base narrowed, tip rounded. Seed: 0.4 mm, widely elliptic, with wavy ridges alternate weakly pitted rows. [Nemacladus rubescens var. tenuis McVaugh] Varieties differ in flower morphology to an extent suggesting sp., were it not for intermediates. [Online Interchange]

N. tenuis var. tenuis
Inflorescence: bracts 0.5–1 mm, lance-linear to ovate, appressed to pedicel; pedicels 8–12 mm, < 0.1 mm diam. Flower: sepals 0.7–1 mm, linear; corolla divided 1/2 to base, lobes ± alike, 0.9–2 mm, white with pale or deep pink or ± yellow tips; filaments 1–2 mm, arched, anthers 0.4–0.5 mm. Fruit: 1–2 mm.
Dry, sandy or gravelly soils; < 1600 m. Desert; Baja California. Apr–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Nemacladus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 30 2015

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click for enlargement Nemacladus tenuis var. tenuis
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© 2010 Aaron Schusteff

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Nemacladus tenuis var. tenuis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.