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CYPERACEAE SEDGE FAMILY

S. Galen Smith, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; generally bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305]

Key to Cyperaceae

SCIRPUS BULRUSH
Perennial herb, rhizomed [not], glabrous; roots fibrous. Stem: generally erect, 3-angled or cylindric, solid. Leaf: basal and cauline, 3-ranked; blades 4–11 per stem, linear, generally > sheaths, flat [V-shaped in ×-section], margins, generally midribs scabrous; sheaths not fibrous; ligule present or 0. Inflorescence: terminal or in axils of 1–3 distal leaves, spikelets 1 or few to many in panicle or head-like clusters; inflorescence bracts generally 3, leaf-like; spikelets < 5 mm diam; flower bracts 10–50, spiraled, 1–3.5 mm, sharp-pointed, each with 1 flower in axil. Flower: bisexual; perianth of (0)3–6 bristles, < or >> fruit, straight or strong-curled, smooth to barbed or toothed, generally persistent on fruit; stamens 1–3; style 2–3-branched, base persistent. Fruit: 0.5–1.8 mm, ovate, obovate, or elliptic, 2–3-sided, minute-papillate or -pitted.
± 35 species: North America, Mexico, Eurasia, Australia. [Whittemore & Schuyler 2002 FNANM 23:8–21] Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Amphiscirpus, Bolboschoenus, Isolepis, Schoenoplectus, Trichophorum.
Unabridged references: [Schuyler 1967 Proc Acad Nat Sci Philadelphia 119:295–323; Browning et al. 1995 Brittonia 47:433–445; Smith 1995 Novon 5:97–102]

Key to Scirpus

Previous taxon: Schoenus nigricans
Next taxon: Scirpus congdonii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Scirpus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=8921, accessed on Jul 30 2014

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