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CYPERACEAE SEDGE FAMILY

S. Galen Smith, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; generally bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305]

Key to Cyperaceae

RHYNCHOSPORA BEAKED-RUSH
Perennial herb [annual] 5–100(150) cm; rhizomes generally 0. Stem: generally 3-angled, <= 2 mm diam, glabrous, margin often minute-scabrous. Leaf: few to many, basal and cauline, spiraled; blade > sheath, 0.5–3 mm wide, proximally flat, midrib abaxially keeled or not, margin generally, midrib occasionally scabrous; sheath permanently tubular (not splitting), glabrous; ligule present or 0. Inflorescence: generally several, terminal and axillary, branched [head]; spikelets several to many, cylindric, 3.5–5.5 mm, on short stalks with spikelet bracts; flower bracts ± 5, spiraled [2-ranked], each with 1 flower in axil or proximal 1 or more smaller, with 0 flower, and intergrading with spikelet bracts, 1.7–3.5(4) mm, ovate, membranous, glabrous, generally mucronate or short-awned. Flower: bisexual or occasionally distal-most staminate; perianth bristles 2–12[20], to ± exceeding tubercle, barbed, persistent on fruit [not]; style 2[3]-branched, base much enlarged, persistent on fruit as a prominent tubercle. Fruit: 2-sided [± cylindric], body (except tubercle) obovate to pear-shaped, smooth or winkled [variously sculptured otherwise], brown.
> 250 species: especially tropics. (Greek: snout seed) [Kral 2002 FNANM 23:200–239] Kral's (2002) statement that Rhynchospora kunthii Kunth, Rhynchospora recognita (Gale) Kral (treated here as a synonym of Rhynchospora globularis) are both in California is evidently undocumented.

Key to Rhynchospora

Previous taxon: Lipocarpha occidentalis
Next taxon: Rhynchospora alba

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Rhynchospora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=8919, accessed on Nov 22 2014

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