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ERICACEAE HEATH FAMILY

Gary D. Wallace, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Ericaceae

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS MANZANITA

V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley

Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally ± red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally ± gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally ± like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: ± raceme (generally 0–1-branched) or panicle (generally 2–10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4–6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4–10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally ± depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, ± mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2–10, free, fused, or some fused.
± 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. (Greek: bear berries) [Keeley 1997 Madroño 44:109–111; Parker et al. 2007 Madroño 54:148–155]
Unabridged note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61–77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.

Key to Arctostaphylos

A. crustacea Eastw.
NATIVE
Erect, 1–3 m; burl prominent. Stem: twig glabrous or tomentose, glandular or not. Leaf: spreading; petiole 2–5 mm; blade 2–5 cm, 1.5–2.5 cm wide, oblong-ovate to lance-oblong, abaxially glabrous to densely short-nonglandular-hairy, light green, adaxially ± glabrous (nonglandular-hairy), dark green, base truncate to ± lobed, tip acute, margin entire, occasionally toothed, cupped or ± rolled; stomata abaxial. Inflorescence: panicle, 2–8-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, axis 1–2.5 cm, > 1 mm wide, glabrous, nonglandular-hairy, or glandular-hairy; lower bracts leaf-like, upper often scale-like, tomentose, glandular or not; bracts 3–8 mm, scale-like and awl-shaped to deltate or leaf-like and lanceolate, glabrous to hairy; pedicel 2–5 mm, sparsely nonglandular-hairy to glandular-hairy. Flower: ovary glabrous to short-hairy, generally nonglandular. Fruit: 6–10 mm wide, depressed-spheric, glabrous to sparsely nonglandular-hairy; stones free.
2n=52. [Online Interchange]

A. crustacea subsp. eastwoodiana (P.V. Wells) V.T. Parker et al. EASTWOOD'S BRITTLE-LEAF MANZANITA
NATIVE
Stem: twig generally densely short-nonglandular-hairy. Leaf: blade abaxially glabrous. Inflorescence: pedicel glabrous. Flower: ovary glabrous.
Chaparral, closed-cone conifer forest; < 650 m. s Central Coast/Outer South Coast Ranges (nw Santa Barbara Co.). [Arctostaphylos tomentosa subsp. eastwoodiana P.V. Wells] Feb–Apr [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Arctostaphylos crustacea subsp. eastwoodiana (P.V. Wells) V.T. Parker, M.C. Vasey & J.E. Keeley

Previous taxon: Arctostaphylos crustacea subsp. crustacea
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Arctostaphylos, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=89189, accessed on Jul 30 2014

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Bioregions in which Arctostaphylos crustacea subsp. eastwoodiana occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.