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MELANTHIACEAE FALSE-HELLEBORE FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
10 genera, 130 species: northern hemisphere. W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Melanthiaceae

TOXICOSCORDION DEATH CAMAS

Dale W. McNeal & Wendy B. Zomlefer

Stem: ± scapose. Leaf: ± basal, reduced upward, linear, generally folded, ± curved, entire, deciduous after 1 year. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flower bracts 1 (or reportedly 2). Flower: staminate, sterile, or generally bisexual; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to ± yellow [or not], adaxially with [0]1[2] glands near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary superior, chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, septicidal. Seed: many.
± 8 species: central United States, western North America. (Greek: poison garlic, for poisonous bulb) All taxa highly TOXIC (generally unpalatable) to livestock, humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs). As treated in TJM (1993), Zigadenus polyphyletic, so California members transferred to Toxicoscordion (Zomlefer & Judd 2002 Novon 12:299–308).

Key to Toxicoscordion

T. brevibracteatum (M.E. Jones) R.R. Gates
NATIVE
Bulb 10–40 mm diam, ovoid; outer coat dark brown to black. Stem: 30–60 cm, glabrous. Leaf: 10–30 cm, 3–10 mm wide, scabrous-ciliate. Inflorescence: generally panicle, 10–35 cm, open; bracts 2–8 mm, green; pedicels in fruit generally spreading, 10–40 mm. Flower: on branches generally bisexual or staminate; perianth parts 5–8 mm, ovate to elliptic, ± obtuse, outer ± not clawed, inner clawed, gland distal margins evident; stamens ± 2/3 perianth; styles spreading or recurved. Fruit: 8–20 mm, oblong.
n=11. Sandy desert; 600–1800 m. Tehachapi Mountain Area, Western Transverse Ranges, Mojave Desert. [Zigadenus brevibracteatus (M.E. Jones) H.M. Hall] Apr–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Toxicoscordion, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=89160, accessed on Apr 18 2014

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Bioregions in which Toxicoscordion brevibracteatum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.