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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; monoecious, dioecious, or flowers bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Gilmour et al. 2013 Kew Bull 68:85–105] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be individual pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be individual pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. Molecular, morphological, and embryological evidence indicates that Eriophorum crinigerum is to be segregated to a new genus, as Calliscirpus criniger (A. Gray) C.N. Gilmour et al., along with a second, newly described species, Calliscirpus brachythrix C.N. Gilmour et al. (Gilmour et al. 2013); key to genera modified by Peter W. Ball to include Calliscirpus. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305; Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445;]
Key to Cyperaceae
Annual, perennial herb, scapose, rhizomed or not. Stem: ± cylindric or flat, often prominent-ridged, <= 1 mm diam. Leaf: several, basal, spiraled, flower stem with 1+ cauline; blade flat proximally, longest > sheath, <= 4 mm wide; sheath distally open, margin scabrous, tip hairs << 1 mm, stiff; ligule 0 or of short hairs. Inflorescence: 1, terminal, branched or head-like, inflorescence bracts (1)2–8; spikelets (1)80+, cylindric [(flat)]; flower bracts 8–100, spiraled, each with 1 flower in axil or occasionally 0 in proximal 1–2, membranous, glabrous or puberulent, tip entire, mucronate, or short-awned. Flower: bisexual; perianth 0; style often flat, 2-branched, base enlarged, not persistent. Fruit: 2–3-sided, wide-obovate, minute-netted-honeycombed, occasionally warty, brown or ± white, mucronate.Key to Fimbristylis
Generally moist to wet places.
100+ species: warm temperate to tropics. (Latin: fringe style) [Kral 2002 FNANM 23:121–131] Fimbristylis miliacea record (1866) undocumented for California.
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: fimbria, fringe, and stylus, style)
Previous taxon: Eriophorum gracile
Next taxon: Fimbristylis autumnalis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Feb 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Fimbristylis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=8909, accessed on Feb 27 2015
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