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Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Chenopodiaceae
Annual to perennial herb, glandular, ± strongly scented. Stem: generally ± branched. Leaf: alternate, generally petioled; blade linear to ovate, entire to lobed, dentate or serrate, base generally tapered. Inflorescence: spikes, panicles, or dense axillary spheric clusters; bracts leaf-like, reduced, or 0. Flower: generally sessile; calyx lobes 1–5, fused or not, flat to keeled, persistent; stamens 1–5; stigmas 1–3. Fruit: achene, ± 1 mm; fruit wall free or attached to seed, thin, smooth to papillate, occasionally densely glandular. Seed: vertical or horizontal, red-brown to black.Key to Dysphania
± 32 species: temperate; some cultivated for food, medicine. (Greek: obscure, apparently for inconspicuous flowers) [Clemants & Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:267–275] Fruit generally required for identification.
Unabridged references: [Wahl 1954 Bartonia 27:1–46]
Plant 40–60 cm. Stem: glandular, long-soft-wavy-hairy. Leaf: blade 20–90 mm, lanceolate, dentate with straight, widely spaced teeth, generally densely glandular, tip acuminate. Inflorescence: spikes, axillary and terminal; bracts 10–18 mm. Flower: calyx lobes ± = tube, tips long-soft-wavy-hairy and sparsely glandular in flower, in age enclosing fruit and dry. Fruit: ± 0.8 mm diam; wall free from seed, glandular. Seed: generally vertical, ovoid.
Disturbed areas, streambeds; < 500 m. Outer North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, San Francisco Bay Area; Oregon; native to southern South America. Aug–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Chenopodium ambrosioides var. vagans (Standl.) J.T. Howell]
Previous taxon: Dysphania botrys
Next taxon: Dysphania multifida
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 14 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dysphania, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=88962, accessed on Sep 14 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dysphania chilensis|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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