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MALVACEAE MALLOW FAMILY

Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae

MALVA MALLOW
Annual to shrub, generally taprooted; hairs stellate, simple, or 0. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally not rooting, herbaceous to soft-woody. Leaf: stipules persistent; petioled; blade round to reniform, shallowly to deeply palmate-5–7(9)-lobed or lobes 0, generally crenate to dentate. Inflorescence: raceme-like or generally flowers 1–10 in leaf axils; flowering stalks often jointed above middle; bractlets 3, free or fused ± 1/2. Flower: showy or not; calyx lobes ± = tube; petals ± 0.4–4.5 cm, generally shallowly notched at tip, pink, purple, rose-purple or white, dark-veined or not; anthers generally on upper 1/3–1/2 of filament tube; stigmas linear, on inner side of style branches. Fruit: ± disk-like; segments 6–15[20], indehiscent, generally edged; walls smooth or ribbed, puberulent or not; beak 0. Seed: firmly enclosed by, not readily separating from fruit wall, reniform, generally glabrous.
± 30–40 species: Europe, especially Mediterranean, Asia, Africa, few Australia, America. (Greek: mallow, tender) Some species reportedly TOXIC to livestock from selenium or nitrate concentration. [Ray 1998 Novon 8:288–295] Incl 3 California species formerly placed in Lavatera (Hill 2009).
Unabridged etymology: (Greek: malache or malos, mallow, tender)
Unabridged references: [Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 255–261; 274–279, including Lavatera; Ray 1995 Plant Syst Evol 198:29–53; Ray 1998 Novon 8:288–295]
Unabridged note: Recently treated to include several species of Lavatera based primarily on molecular data (Ray 1995, 1998). Several other widely cultivated species may escape, including Malva alcea L., Malva moschata L.

Key to Malva

M. arborea (L.) Webb & Berthel. TREE MALLOW
NATURALIZED
Biennial to subshrub, stellate-tomentose. Stem: 1–3 m; base generally woody. Leaf: blade 5–20 cm, cordate, unequally shallowly 5–7(9)-lobed, crenate, densely soft-stellate-hairy especially abaxially. Inflorescence: flowers clustered in leaf axils; involucel > calyx, bractlet free parts ± 8 mm, 5–6 mm wide, ovate to round. Flower: calyx ± 4 mm, not especially larger in fruit, stellate-canescent; petals 1.5–2 cm, rose to lavender with 5 dark veins, base dark purple. Fruit: 8–10 mm diam; segments (6)8(9), ± glabrous to puberulent, ridged on sides, back, outer edges sharp. Seed: ± 3 mm.
2n=36,40,42,44. Uncommon. Disturbed places on coastal bluffs, dunes; < 200 m. North Coast, n Central Coast, South Coast; native to Europe, especially Mediterranean. [Lavatera arborea L.; Malva dendromorpha M.F. Ray, nom. superfl.] Apr–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Malva, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=88845, accessed on Dec 20 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Malva arborea Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.