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Annual to small tree; sap colorless, yellow, orange, red, or white. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, simple and entire, toothed, or lobed, or 1–3-pinnate-dissected or compound; cauline generally alternate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal, 1-flowered or cyme, raceme, or panicle; bracts generally present. Flower: bisexual, radial, bilateral, or biradial; sepals 2–3, shed after flower; petals generally 2 × sepals in number; stamens generally many; ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0 or 1, stigmas or lobes 2–many, ovules few to many. Fruit: capsule, dehiscent by valves or pores, ± nut, or breaking transversely into 1-seeded, indehiscent units. Seed: fleshy appendage generally 0.
25–30 genera, 200 species: northern temperate, northern tropics; some cultivated (Papaver, Eschscholzia, Hunnemannia), source of opiates. Stylomecon moved to Papaver. Corydalis, Dicentra, Fumaria in Fumariaceae in FNANM, elsewhere. Glaucium flavum Crantz is a waif. According to FNANM (3:300–301), Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet (± like Eschscholzia except sepals free) an occasional waif in California, but documentation evidently lacking. Fleshy appendage of seed sometimes for dispersal by ants. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Papaveraceae
Annual [perennial herb]; sap white, orange, or red. Leaf: basal and cauline [or basal], deeply pinnate-lobed, glabrous or hairy, glaucous or not. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, 1-flowered. Flower: bud nodding; sepals 2, shed at flower; petals generally 4, free, obovate to wedge-shaped, white to red or purple; stamens many, free; placentas 4–20, style 0(1), stigma disk- or head-like, lobes 4–20. Fruit: dehiscent by pores below stigma. Seed: many, < 0.7 mm, reniform, net-ridged, brown or black.Key to Papaver
70+ species: especially Eurasia. (Latin: poppy) Papaver dubium L. (fruit ± oblong, glabrous; peduncle hairs near flower appressed, stiff), perhaps in California as waif.
Plant 30–60 cm; sap yellow. Leaf: basal and cauline, 2–12 cm, deeply pinnate-lobed, glabrous to sparsely hairy, petioled; 1° lobes toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered; peduncle 5–20 cm. Flower: sepals 4–10 mm; petals 10–20 mm, wedge-shaped, orange-red, purple-spotted at base, shed after flower; filaments purple, anthers yellow; carpels 4–11, style 1, slender, stigma head-like, lobes 4–11. Fruit: 1–2 cm, obconic to obovate. Seed: many, 0.4 mm, reniform, rough-net-ridged, brown or black.
2n=56. Grassy areas, openings in chaparral; < 1500 m. s Northwestern California, c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California; northern Baja California. [Stylomecon heterophylla (Benth.) G. Taylor] Apr–May [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Papaver californicum
Next taxon: Papaver hybridum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 7 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Papaver, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=86377, accessed on Mar 7 2014
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