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CHENOPODIACEAE GOOSEFOOT FAMILY

Mihai Costea, family description, key to genera, revised by Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Chenopodiaceae

SALSOLA

G. Frederic Hrusa

Annual to shrub. Stem: simple to many-branched. Leaf: generally reduced distally along stem, thread-like to ± cylindric, spine-tipped, in age generally thick, rigid. Inflorescence: axillary; bracts 1–2; flowers generally 1 per axil. Flower: bisexual; sepals 4–5, thickened in fruit, persistent, generally tubercled to winged; stamens generally 5, exserted, style branches generally 2, exserted. Fruit: spheric to obovoid; tip ± depressed. Seed: horizontal.
± 100 species: ± worldwide. (Latin: salty, from habitats) [Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:398–403; Hrusa & Gaskin 2008 Madroño 55:113–131] An alternative treatment as separate genera Kali (Salsola australis, Salsola gobicola, Salsola paulsenii, Salsola ryanii, Salsola tragus), Caroxylon (Salsola damascena), and Salsola (Salsola soda) has been proposed (Akhani et al. 2007 Int J Plant Sci 168:931–956).

Key to Salsola

S. ryanii Hrusa & Gaskin
NATURALIZED
Annual < 2 m, ± rounded, loosely branched from base, glabrous to sparsely short-bristly. Stem: branched from base, longitudinally ribbed, occasionally red-striped. Leaf: opposite to alternate below, deciduous, alternate above, 5–55 mm, in age upper rigid, base wider, leathery, margin translucent, tip sharp-pointed to spiny. Inflorescence: bract ± cylindric, spiny, in age broad, thick, lower margin ± translucent. Flower: sepals 2.5–3 mm; anthers 0.6–0.9 mm. Fruit: persistent or not; 4.6–8.1 mm diam including wings; developed wings in fruit 5, generally opaque, veins few, dark to pale, margin smooth to unevenly scalloped, smallest wings spoon-shaped.
2n=54. Uncommon. Disturbed places; < 350(800) m. Sacramento Valley, s San Joaquin Valley, Inner South Coast Ranges. Hexaploid derivative of tetraploid Salsola tragus, diploid Salsola australis. Not known outside California. Occasionally plants of hexaploid Salsola tragus may key here, these generally more robust, hairy than Salsola ryanii. Jun–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Salsola, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=86336, accessed on Sep 19 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Salsola ryanii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.