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Andy Murdock, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, [shrub, tree], glabrous or hairy. Stem: often forked. Leaf: opposite, sessile or petioled, pairs generally unequal; blade generally entire. Inflorescence: generally forked; spike, head-like cluster, or umbel, flowers rarely 1, bracts forming a calyx-like involucre or not. Flower: bisexual, generally ± radial (bilateral), sometimes cleistogamous in some genera; perianth of 1 whorl, generally petal-like, bell- to trumpet-shaped, base hardened, tightly surrounding ovary in fruit, lobes 3–5, generally notched to ± lobed; stamens 1–many; ovary superior (appearing inferior due to hardened perianth base), style 1. Fruit: achene in hardened perianth base; round to ± flat; smooth, angled, ribbed, or winged; glabrous, hairy, or glandular.
30 genera, 350 species: warm regions, especially America; some ornamental (Bougainvillea; Mirabilis, four o'clock). [Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:14–17] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Nyctaginaceae

Annual, perennial herb. Stem: prostrate to erect; internode often with sticky region. Leaf: petioled; blade 1–6 cm, paler beneath, often brown-dotted. Inflorescence: panicle-like, branches ending in umbel, spike-like raceme, or paired or solitary flowers; bracts 1–3, free, not forming involucre. Flower: closing by evening; perianth bell-shaped, tube < 5 mm, limb < 3 mm; stamens 1–5; stigma ± spheric, generally exserted. Fruit: < 4 mm, club-shaped; ribs 4–5; wings 0.
± 40 species: warm regions worldwide. (H. Boerhaave, Dutch botanist, 1668–1738) [Spellenberg 2003 FNANM 4:17–28]

Key to Boerhavia

B. triquetra S. Watson var. intermedia (M.E. Jones) Spellenb.
Annual. Stem: ascending or erect, 2–5 dm; hairs fine, sparse. Leaf: blade broadly lanceolate or ovate, acute to obtuse. Inflorescence: generally umbel of 3–6(8) flowers or flowers 1 or paired. Flower: 1.5–2 mm; perianth pale pink to white. Fruit: 2–2.7 mm, glabrous, length 3 × width; ribs (3)5, rounded to angled; tip ± truncate to abruptly rounded.
Gravelly washes, flats; < 1300 m. e Peninsular Ranges, e Desert Mountains (Clark, Ivanpah mtns, Kingston Range), se Mojave Desert except Desert Mountains, e Sonoran Desert; to Texas, Mexico. [Boerhavia intermedia M.E. Jones] In northern Mexico, less so in California, intergrading with Boerhavia triquetra S. Watson var. triquetra of Mexico; easily confused with Boerhavia erecta L. (fruit 3–4.5 mm), widespread in tropical America, expected as agricultural weed in California near Mexico. Aug–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: In northern Mexico, less so in California, poorly distinguished from, intergrading with B. triquetra S. Watson var. triquetra of Mexico (flowers generally 1 or paired; fruit length 2 × width, ribs 3, rarely 4, sharp, tip truncate); easily confused with Boerhavia erecta L. (fruit 3–4.5 mm), widespread in tropical America, expected as agricultural weed in California near Mexico.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Boerhavia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Boerhavia triquetra var. intermedia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.