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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae


James D. Morefield

Annual 1–50[70] cm, ± gray, cobwebby to tomentose. Stem: 1, erect, or 2–10+, generally ascending to prostrate, ± forked at least distally, generally evenly leafy proximally, ± leafless between distal forks. Leaf: alternate, ± sessile, linear to obovate or awl-shaped, entire; distal leaves subtending heads, crowded, largest > proximal leaves. Inflorescence: heads disciform, ± sessile, generally 2–10(14) per group or some [all] single; involucre 0 or vestigial, simulated by paleae, or ± cup-like, then phyllaries various, << paleae; receptacle length [0.4]0.7–1.6 × width, obovoid to mushroom-shaped, glabrous; paleae, except innermost, each ± enclosing pappus-lacking pistillate flower, deciduous with fruit (sometimes tardily), ± boat-shaped, obtuse to acute, ± tomentose abaxially, obscurely parallel-veined, veins 5+, margin reflexed distally as scarious wing, wing prominent, terminal, erect to curved inward, visible in head; innermost paleae ± 5[8], collectively surrounding pappus-bearing disk + inner pistillate flowers, > outer, spreading at maturity, concave, lance-ovate, acute, cartilaginous, ± brown, ± glabrous. Pistillate flower: (11)14–45+, generally only outer subtended by paleae; corolla obscure, narrowly cylindric. Disk flower: bisexual, 2–10; pappus present; corolla 4–5-lobed; anther base tailed, tip ± triangular; style tips ± linear-oblong. Fruit: obovoid to oblong; outer pistillate-flower fruit > inner, ± enclosed by palea, generally compressed laterally, smooth, shiny, corolla scar ± terminal, pappus 0; inner pistillate-flower fruit and disk fruit free of paleae, ± cylindric, generally ± papillate, dull, corolla scar terminal, pappus of (11)13–28+ deciduous bristles, visible in head, generally falling together in intact or broken ring.
12 species: southwestern North America, Europe, southwestern Asia, northern Africa, some alien ± worldwide. (Anagram of Filago) [Morefield 2006 FNANM 19:443–447] Characters may be unreliable in young or dwarf plants. Formerly included in Filago in North America.
Unabridged note: 2 Europe aliens, Logfia arvensis(L.) Holub, Logfia minima (Sm.) Dumort. occur near California.

Key to Logfia

L. arizonica (A. Gray) Holub ARIZONA COTTONROSE
Plant 2–10(20) cm. Stem: (1)3–10, forked ± throughout, becoming ± purple to black, ± glabrous, generally leafless between proximal forks. Leaf: linear to narrowly oblanceolate, flexible, largest 15–20(25) mm, 1–1.5 mm wide; distal leaves ± linear, generally 2–5 × heads, acute. Inflorescence: heads 4–10 per group, only at stem forks and tips, ± pyramidal, largest ± 4 mm, ± 3 mm wide; phyllaries 0 or vestigial; outer paleae in 5 vertical ranks, curved inward 20–60°, longest 2.2–2.7 mm, body cartilaginous. Pistillate flower: outer 9–13(17); inner (with pappus) (0)1–2. Disk flower: 4–10; corolla 1.2–1.7 mm, lobes generally 5, ± brown to ± yellow. Fruit: outer curved inward, 0.9–1 mm, compressed front-to-back; pappus bristles of inner 17–23, 1.3–2 mm.
2n=28. Locally or seasonally moist, generally clay soils; < 800 m. s South Coast, s Channel Islands, Peninsular Ranges, w Sonoran Desert; south-central Arizona, to northwestern Mexico (including islands). [Filago arizonica A. Gray] Feb–May [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Reports from Mojave Desert likely Stylocline psilocarphoides.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Logfia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Logfia arizonica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.