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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucral bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
Key to Asteraceae
Annual, perennial herb, subshrub. Leaf: simple or often pinnately divided, opposite or alternate, dotted with embedded oil glands. Inflorescence: heads radiate [discoid], peduncled [sessile], 1 or in few-headed cyme-like clusters; involucre hemispheric to bell-shaped or obconic; phyllaries in 2–3 series (outer, if present, few, short, free, inner nearly free to fused most of their length, gland-dotted); receptacle flat to rounded, epaleate. Ray flower: 0–21; corolla yellow [white]. Disk flower: 16–100+; corolla yellow; style tips truncate or conic. Fruit: obpyramidal, obconic, or cylindric; pappus of scales, each awn-tipped or dissected into bristles.Key to Thymophylla
13 species: southern North America, Caribbean. (Greek: thyme-leaved) [Strother 2006 FNANM 21:239–245] Thymophylla tenuiloba (DC.) Small var. tenuiloba (annual; leaves mostly alternate, opposite only at proximal 1–3 nodes, lobe tips weak, not bristle-like) a waif in South Coast.
Unabridged references: [Strother 1986 Sida 11:371–378]
Plant 1–3 dm. Stem: generally many, slender, very leafy. Leaf: 1–2 cm, pinnately divided into 3–5 linear lobes, puberulent. Inflorescence: head 1; peduncle 2.5–4.5 cm; involucre 3.5–6 mm diam; outer phyllaries 3–5, short-triangular; inner phyllaries 13 in 2 series, free most of length, 5–6 mm, outer linear, ciliate, inner wider. Ray flower: generally 13; ray 2–3.5 mm. Disk flower: corolla 2.5–3 mm. Fruit: 2–3 mm, puberulent; pappus of 10 scales, each 2.5–3 mm, dissected into 3 awns (or 5 of the 10 truncate, ± 1 mm).
2n=26. Dry roadsides, gravelly slopes, desert scrub, desert woodland; 450–1700 m. eastern South Coast (introduced), eastern San Jacinto Mountains, eastern Mojave Desert, se Desert Mountains, w Sonoran Desert; to Texas, northern Mexico; southern South America. (Mar)Apr–Jun, Sep–Oct [Online Interchange]
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 11 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Thymophylla, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=8519, accessed on Mar 11 2014
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|Thymophylla pentachaeta var. belenidium|
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© 2008 Steve Matson
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