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Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
10 genera, 130 species: northern hemisphere. W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Melanthiaceae


1 sp.: California, Oregon. (Like Trillium) [Farmer 2006 Aliso 22:579–592]

P. rivale (S. Watson) S.B. Farmer BROOK WAKEROBIN
Stem: 0.5–2 dm. Leaf: 3, in 1 whorl subtending flower, petioled (subsessile), blade 1.7–11 cm, lanceolate to cordate, acute to acuminate, leathery. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per stem; peduncle generally erect as flower opens, becoming recurved and continuing to elongate below bracts after pollination until ovary contacts soil. Flower: bisexual; sepals 1–2 cm, 4–11 mm wide, lanceolate or ovate to oblong; petals 1.5–3 cm, 0.8–1.9 cm wide, ovate-cordate, white (pink), generally purple-spotted; stamens 6, 6–15 mm; ovary chambers 3 stigmas 3, recurved. Fruit: capsule, berry-like, ± pulpy, rarely dehiscent, generally shed as a unit.
n=5. Yellow-pine forest along rocky streambanks and in Darlingtonia bogs, generally serpentine; 40–1500 m. Klamath Ranges; southwestern Oregon. [Trillium rivale S. Watson] Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pseudotrillium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

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click for enlargement Pseudotrillium rivale
See CalPhotos for additional images
2007 Shawn DeCew

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pseudotrillium rivale Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.