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POLYGONACEAE BUCKWHEAT FAMILY

Mihai Costea & James L. Reveal, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera revised in consultation with James L. Reveal, except as noted

Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Polygonaceae

FALLOPIA

Mihai Costea

Annual, perennial herb, vine or not. Stem: erect, trailing, or twining, glabrous or hairy, ribs 0. Leaf: cauline, alternate, petioled; ocrea persistent or not, cylindric, papery, opaque; blade broad-ovate to triangular, entire. Inflorescence: axillary, terminal, spike-, panicle-, or raceme-like; flowers 3–7; peduncle present or 0. Flower: bisexual or pistillate (1 kind per plant); perianth generally enlarging, bell-shaped, pale green or white to pink, glabrous, base stalk-like, parts 5, fused basally or ± completely, of 2 kinds, outer 3 generally winged, > inner 2; stamens 6–8, filaments free, wider basally, glabrous or hairy, anthers yellow to pink or red, ovate to elliptic; styles 3, spreading, fused basally or ± completely, stigmas head-like, fringed, or peltate. Fruit: included or exserted, 3-angled, brown to black. Seed: embryo straight.
12 species: America, Europe, Asia, Africa. (Gabriele Fallopio, Italian botanist, 1523–1562)
Unabridged etymology: (for Gabriele Fallopio, 1523–1562, Italian professor of anatomy, botany, and surgery, for whom Fallopian tubes also named)

Key to Fallopia

F. japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. JAPANESE KNOTWEED
NATURALIZED
Perennial herb, rhizomed. Stem: generally in dense clumps, erect, generally 1–2 m, glaucous, glabrous, branches few. Leaf: ocrea 5–8 mm, ± brown, margin oblique, glabrous or puberulent; blade 6–13 cm, 5–10 cm wide, widely ovate, abaxially with 1-celled hairs < 0.1 mm on veins, adaxially glabrous, base truncate, tip acuminate. Inflorescence: axillary, generally distal, erect or spreading, panicle-like, 3–10 cm; peduncle 0–2.5 cm; pedicels 3–5 mm, glabrous; flowers 4–6. Flower: bisexual or functionally ± unisexual; perianth 4.5–6.5 mm, winged, ± white, glabrous, lobes obovate to elliptic, tips obtuse to acute; stamens 6–8, filaments glabrous; styles fused basally, stigmas fringed. Fruit: included, 3.8–5 mm, 2–2.2 mm wide, dark-brown, shiny, smooth.
2n=44,88. Disturbed places; < 1000 m. n California Floristic Province (especially s North Coast Ranges), San Francisco Bay Area; to eastern North America; native to Japan. [Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.; Reynoutria japonica Houtt.] Introduced as ornamental, spreading aggressively. Aug–Oct {Noxious weed} [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Fallopia convolvulus
Next taxon: Fallopia sachalinensis

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Fallopia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=82464, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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click for enlargement Fallopia japonica
See CalPhotos for additional images
2006 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Fallopia japonica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.