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Mihai Costea, except as noted

Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or ± fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1–200 per node; perianth parts 2–6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often ± concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning ± red or ± brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6–9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1–3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
48 genera, ± 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. [Freeman & Reveal 2005 FNANM 5:216–601] Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1–many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed ± presently), therefore not treated. Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Polygonaceae


James L. Reveal & Thomas J. Rosatti

1 sp. (Latin: thorn cup, for involucre awns) [Ertter 1980 Brittonia 32:70–102]

A. parishii (Parry) Small FLOWERY PUNCTUREBRACT
Annual, erect, glabrous. Leaf: basal; blades 1–7 cm, 0.5–2 cm wide; ocreae 0. Inflorescence: terminal, cyme-like, nodes, lower 1/2 of each internode glandular; peduncles erect to reflexed; involucre 1, 1.5–2 mm, tubular, glandular at tip, teeth 4(5) or generally 7–30(36), awns 2–5 mm, ivory or ± red. Flower: 3–20, 2–2.5 mm, hairy, sparsely glandular; perianth white or cream to rose, lobes 6, generally entire; stamens 9. Fruit: brown to maroon, elliptic, 1.7–2 mm, glabrous; embryo curved. [Oxytheca parishii Parry] [Online Interchange]

Key to Acanthoscyphus parishii

A. parishii var. abramsii (E.A. McGregor) Reveal ABRAMS' OXYTHECA
Plant 1–3 dm. Leaf: 1–3(5) cm. Inflorescence: bracts generally 3, awns 0.5–1.5 mm; peduncles 0.8–2 cm; involucre awns 7–16, 3–4 mm, dark red.
Sand; 1700–2000 m. s Outer South Coast Ranges (San Rafael Mtns), Western Transverse Ranges (Topatopa Mtns, Mount Pinos). [Eriogonum abramsii (E.A. McGregor) S. Stokes; Oxytheca abramsii E.A. McGregor; Oxytheca parishii Parry subsp. abramsii (E.A. McGregor) Munz; Oxytheca parishii var. abramsii (E.A. McGregor) Munz] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Acanthoscyphus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Acanthoscyphus parishii var. abramsii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.