Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon


David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae


Guy L. Nesom

Annual to perennial herb, generally taprooted. Stem: 1–several from base, generally woolly-tomentose, sometimes stalked- or sessile-glandular. Leaf: basal and cauline or mostly cauline, often ± clasping and/or decurrent, generally narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate, entire, ± tomentose, sometimes adaxially glandular. Inflorescence: heads disciform, generally in tight groups in flat-topped to cyme- or panicle-like cluster; involucre cylindric to generally urn-shaped, ± bell-shaped when pressed; phyllaries graduated in (2)3–7(10) series, persistent, ± spreading when dry, bases generally green, distally generally sessile-glandular, tips generally stiff-papery, opaque or clear, dull or shiny, ± white, rosy, tawny, or brown; receptacle flat to convex, epaleate, glabrous. Pistillate flower: many; corolla narrowly tubular, minutely lobed, ± yellow to ± red. Disk flower: few; corolla yellow or ± red; anther tip ± triangular; style branches truncate, hair-tufted. Fruit: oblong-compressed or cylindric, glabrous or ± papillate; pappus bristles in 1 series, deciduous, generally free, or weakly coherent.
± 100 species: worldwide, mostly America, generally temperate. (Greek: deceptively similar to Gnaphalium, a related genus) [Nesom 2006 FNANM 19:415–425]
Unabridged references: [Nesom 2004 Sida 21:781–790]

Key to Pseudognaphalium

P. thermale (E.E. Nelson) G.L. Nesom
Perennial herb, scented. Stem: 2–7 dm, loosely tomentose, not glandular. Leaf: proximally or not crowded, 3–8 cm, 3–6 mm wide, reduced distally on stem, narrowly oblanceolate, not clasping, decurrent 5–18 mm, flat, faces loosely tomentose, sessile-glandular beneath long hairs. Inflorescence: loose to dense, flat-topped to panicle-like cluster; involucre (4)5–6 mm, top- to bell-shaped when pressed; phyllaries in 3–4(5) series, ovate to ovate-oblong, ± white, transparent or opaque, generally shiny, sometimes dull, outer widely acute, inner rounded to short-pointed, glabrous. Pistillate flower: 35–55. Disk flower: (2)4–7. Fruit: ridged, densely papillate-roughened.
Openings in forest, riverbeds, banks, roadsides; 100–2500 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, c&s Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Peninsular Ranges (Cuyamaca Mtns), East of Sierra Nevada; to British Columbia, Wyoming, Utah. [Gnaphalium canescens DC. subsp. thermale (E.E. Nelson) Stebbins & D.J. Keil; Gnaphalium thermale E.E. Nelson; Gnaphalium microcephalum Nutt. var. thermale (E.E. Nelson) Cronquist; Pseudognaphalium microcephalum (Nutt.) Anderb. var. thermale (E.E. Nelson) Dorn] Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Pseudognaphalium stramineum
Next taxon: Psilocarphus


Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Pseudognaphalium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Pseudognaphalium thermale Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.