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Mihai Costea, family description, key to genera, revised by Thomas J. Rosatti & Elizabeth H. Zacharias

Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Chenopodiaceae


Steven E. Clemants & Nuri Benet-Pierce

Annual to perennial herb, glandular, ± strongly scented. Stem: generally ± branched. Leaf: alternate, generally petioled; blade linear to ovate, entire to lobed, dentate or serrate, base generally tapered. Inflorescence: spikes, panicles, or dense axillary spheric clusters; bracts leaf-like, reduced, or 0. Flower: generally sessile; calyx lobes 1–5, fused or not, flat to keeled, persistent; stamens 1–5; stigmas 1–3. Fruit: achene, ± 1 mm; fruit wall free or attached to seed, thin, smooth to papillate, occasionally densely glandular. Seed: vertical or horizontal, red-brown to black.
± 32 species: temperate; some cultivated for food, medicine. (Greek: obscure, apparently for inconspicuous flowers) [Clemants & Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:267–275] Fruit generally required for identification.
Unabridged references: [Wahl 1954 Bartonia 27:1–46]

Key to Dysphania

D. pumilio (R. Br.) Mosyakin & Clemants
Annual, prostrate to ascending, 12–45 cm. Stem: glandular. Leaf: blade 4–25 mm, elliptic to lanceolate, coarsely wavy-dentate, lobes obtuse; base generally tapered, glandular abaxially. Inflorescence: axillary, dense ± spheric clusters, 3–6 mm diam. Flower: calyx lobes distinct ± to base, generally keeled, sessile-glandular, papery in age, weakly enclosing fruit; stamens 0–1. Fruit: ± 0.5 mm diam; wall smooth, adherent to seed, margin acute or occasionally round. Seed: generally vertical.
2n=16,18. Disturbed areas; < 3000 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, Transverse Ranges, w Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau; to eastern United States, northern Mexico; native to Australia. [Chenopodium pumilio R. Br.] Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dysphania, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 1 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dysphania pumilio Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.