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Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often ± connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1–many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, ± free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2–3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely ± dehiscent), generally sessile. Seed: appendage generally 0 (present in Moehringia).
83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:3–215] Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5–8. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Caryophyllaceae
Annual, matted or tufted, taprooted, glabrous. Leaf: opposite, appearing whorled or not; stipules 0.4–2.8 mm, lanceolate to triangular, scarious, entire to irregularly toothed or cut, white; petiole generally ± present; blade oblanceolate to obovate; vein 1. Inflorescence: axillary, open to dense; flowers few to many; pedicels 0.2–2 mm. Flower: sepals 5, ± free, 1–2.2 mm, lanceolate to ovate, glabrous, margin scarious, white, awn conic to widely triangular; petals 5, 0.5–1.1 mm, entire or notched; stamens 3–5, ± fused at base; style 1, 3-branched, 0.1–0.3 mm. Fruit: capsule, ovoid to spheric; valves 3, margin rolled inward. Seed: several, brown.Key to Polycarpon
15 species: worldwide. (Greek: many fruit, from capsule number) [Thieret & Rabeler 2005 FNANM 5:25–26]
Stem: prostrate to erect, often much-branched, especially above, 3–17 cm. Leaf: stipules lanceolate to widely triangular; petiole 0 or tapered to blade; blade 4–12 mm, obovate. Flower: sepals lanceolate to ovate, awn widely triangular; petals linear to elliptic. Seed: 0.4–0.5 mm, obliquely triangular, granular.
2n=32,48,64. Disturbed shaded areas, roadsides; < 450 m, 1180 m. Outer North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, c Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, Central Coast, South Coast, San Gabriel Mountains; British Columbia, Texas, southeastern North America; native to southern Europe. Spring–fall [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: 2 other varieties, native to southern Europe, introduced ± worldwide.
Previous taxon: Polycarpon depressum
Next taxon: Pseudostellaria
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Feb 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Polycarpon, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=81542, accessed on Feb 28 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Polycarpon tetraphyllum var. tetraphyllum|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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