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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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David J. Keil, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1–many in generally ± cyme-like cluster; each head generally with ± calyx-like involucre of 1–many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1–many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into ± persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3–5; stamens 4–5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally ± 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing ± brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
± 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Bahia; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Taxa of Arida in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Leucosyris. —Scientific Editors: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.

Key to Asteraceae


Robert L. Carr & Gerald D. Carr

Annual, erect to spreading, with coarse tack-shaped glands, and often simple glandular hairs, aromatic; generally self-sterile. Leaf: basal ± many, mostly deciduous by flowering, occasionally persistent, margins often curled under, and cauline, generally alternate and reduced distally on stem, ± sessile, ± linear, entire or sparsely toothed, ± scabrous, generally with longer stiff hairs, especially on proximal margins. Inflorescence: heads radiate, axillary, often ± sessile, and terminal, 1 or clustered; peduncle bracts linear or narrowly lanceolate to widely oblanceolate, margins thickened, rounded, defining a ± prominent central abaxial channel, especially proximally, ± bristly-ciliate, especially proximally, some or all with 1+ tack-like glands; phyllaries ± equal to shorter than paleae, each partly enfolding a ray fruit; receptacle ± flat, hairy; paleae in one series between ray and disk flowers, ± fused, forming a receptacle cup, phyllaries, paleae generally with abaxial simple and/or tack-like glands and appressed and/or spreading hairs. Ray flower: 1–6; ray 2–12 mm, 3-lobed, white to rose or yellow, occasionally with red spot near base. Disk flower: 1–25; corolla 2.5–10 mm, colored ± like rays; anthers generally purple, tips ovate to triangular; style branches long, bristly. Fruit: ray fruit 1.5–4 mm, ± 3-angled, adaxial face ± flat, abaxial face rounded to ± angled, pappus 0; disk fruit 2–4 mm, angled, base tapered, ± appressed-hairy to glabrous, pappus 0 or generally of 6–16 scales, all ± lanceolate or some blunt and shorter.
± 10 species: especially California (Oregon). (Greek: cup gland) [Carr & Carr 2006 FNANM 21:270–276]

Key to Calycadenia

Self-fertile. Stem: 1–5 dm, ± slender, generally < 2(3) mm diam at base, ± purple distally, generally much-branched from near mid-stem, glabrous. Leaf: proximal 2–5 cm. Inflorescence: heads 1(3) per node, peduncle bracts 2–4 mm, lance-oblong to linear-oblanceolate, generally thickened to ± cylindric toward tip, tack-like glands (0)1, terminal; phyllaries 3.5–5 mm, paleae 4–6 mm, both abaxially glabrous to sparsely bristly, tack-like gland 0(1) (terminal). Ray flower: 1–3(6); ray 2–2.5(3.5) mm, yellow, central lobe smaller than laterals, widest at base, symmetric, laterals asymmetric, sinuses ± 1/4 ray. Disk flower: 1–3, corolla 3–4 mm. Fruit: ray fruit rough-wrinkled, glabrous; disk pappus 0.
2n=14. Dry, open rocky ridges, hillsides, talus; openings in scrub, woodland; 500–1500 m. North Coast Ranges, Outer South Coast Ranges. [Calycadenia truncata subsp. microcephala D.D. Keck, in part] Jun–Oct [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged synonyms: [Calycadenia truncata subsp. microcephala H.M. Hall ex D.D. Keck, in part]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Calycadenia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Calycadenia micrantha Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.