Directory       News       Site Map       Home
         
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon

CYPERACEAE SEDGE FAMILY

S. Galen Smith, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; generally bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305]

Key to Cyperaceae

SCHOENOPLECTUS NAKED-STEMMED BULRUSHES
Generally perennial herb, generally erect, generally with long, scaly rhizomes; stem, leaf generally with air cavities. Stem: simple, smooth, (wiry). Leaf: generally all basal, whorled or 3-ranked; blade generally present, at least on distal sheath, smooth, or margin minute-scabrous; sheath closed, long; ligule glabrous. Inflorescence: terminal, branch stems often scabrous, main inflorescence bract like leaf blade; spikelets ovate, not ± flat, many-flowered; flower bracts spiraled, each with 1 flower in axil, ovate, 1-veined, brown to straw, dull, often fine-lined-spotted, membranous, generally ± scabrous, tip generally notched, generally with short awn. Flower: bisexual; perianth bristles ± straight, ± <= fruit, generally brown, reflexed-barbed (or with soft hairs) [(smooth)]; stamens generally 3; style 1, thread-like, base not enlarged, stigmas 2–3. Fruit: generally obovate, brown, generally smooth, mucronate; tubercle 0.
Wetlands, often emergent (or submersed).
± 77 species: temperate, subtropics, worldwide. (Greek: rush woven, from use of stems in baskets, etc.) [Smith 2002 FNANM 23:44–60]
Unabridged etymology: (Greek, schoenos, a rush, reed, and plectos, plaited, twisted, woven, in reference to the use of stems in making useful objects)

Key to Schoenoplectus

S. pungens (Vahl) Palla var. longispicatus (Britton) S.G. Sm. COMMON THREE-SQUARE BULRUSH
NATIVE
Perennial herb 1–20 dm; rhizome long, 1–6 mm diam. Stem: 1–6 mm diam, sides 3, flat (to deep-concave), edges sharp. Leaf: blades 2–6, ± 3-sided to ± flat, distal (1)2–5 × sheath, 2–9 mm wide, sheath not splitting. Inflorescence: head-like; inflorescence bracts 1–2, generally erect, 1–20 cm; spikelets 1–5(10), 5–23 mm, 3–5(7) mm wide; flower bract 3.5–6 mm, midrib, awn often sparse-scabrous, sparse-deciduous-ciliate, tip notch (0.3)0.5–1 mm, awn 0.5–2.5 mm, generally irregularly bent. Flower: perianth bristles (4)6(8), vestigial to = fruit; stigmas 3. Fruit: (2)2.5–3.5 mm, 1.3–2.3 mm wide, 3-sided, smooth.
Fresh or brackish marshes, shores, fens; < 2400 m. North Coast, Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California, South Coast, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert; to eastern United States, southeastern Canada, Mexico, also South America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand. [Scirpus americanus var. longispicatus Britton; Scirpus pungens Vahl, in part] Late spring–summer [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Schoenoplectus pungens var. badius only differs in its dark chestnut flower bracts, coastal range, and so is not recognized here. Schoenoplectus pungens var. pungens in eastern North America, Europe.

Previous taxon: Schoenoplectus mucronatus
Next taxon: Schoenoplectus saximontanus

Contact/Feedback

Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Schoenoplectus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=81092, accessed on Oct 1 2014

Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.


Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Schoenoplectus pungens var. longispicatus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

 

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.