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CANNABACEAE HEMP FAMILY

Alan T. Whittemore, except as noted

Tree, shrub, or erect or twining perennial herb; dioecious or flowers staminate and bisexual, wind-pollinated; epidermis with stiff hairs, glandular or not; sap watery. Leaf: petioled; simple, unlobed or palmately lobed or compound, all alternate or lower opposite. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, unisexual or with both male and bisexual flowers. Flower: perianth parts 4–6, free or fused; stamens 0 or 4–6; ovary 0 or 1, superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 1, short, stigmas 2, slender, plumose. Fruit: drupe or achene, occasionally ± enclosed in persistent perianth.
11 genera, ± 100 species: temperate, tropical areas worldwide. [Sytsma et al. 2002 Amer J Bot 89:1531–1546] —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Mitchell 1988 Bull New York State Mus Nat Hist 464:17–23]

Key to Cannabaceae

CELTIS HACKBERRY
Tree or shrub, deciduous; hairs unbranched. Leaf: alternate, simple, unlobed, 3-veined from base. Flower: staminate flowers in axils at base of new growth, 1 or clustered; bisexual flowers 1, in axils, perianth not persistent. Fruit: drupe.
± 60 species: widespread, tropics and northern temperate. (Latin name for the lotus of Homer) [Whittemore 2008 J Bot Res Inst Texas 2:627–632] Leaves on vigorous stems may be abnormally large, and (in Celtis reticulata) differently shaped.

Key to Celtis

C. sinensis Pers. CHINESE HACKBERRY
NATURALIZED
Tree to 20 m. Leaf: blade 30–100 mm, 35–60 mm wide, ovate to ovate-elliptic, flexible, subentire to crenate on distal 1/2, tip acute or short-acuminate, smooth adaxially, abaxially hairy only on veins and smooth between, major veins raised. Fruit: 5–7(8) mm diam, brown-orange; pedicel 4–10 mm.
Riparian woodland, alkaline grassland; 15–600 m. n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, South Coast; eastern Asia. Feb–Apr [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Humulus

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Celtis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=80940, accessed on Apr 23 2014

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Bioregions in which Celtis sinensis occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.