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James S. Pringle, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [to trees]. Stem: decumbent to erect, < 2 m, simple or branched. Leaf: simple, cauline, sometimes also basal, opposite or whorled, entire, sessile or basal ± petioled; stipules 0. Flower: bisexual, radial, parts in 4s or 5s except pistil 1; sepals fused, persistent; petals fused, ± persistent, sinus between lobes often unappendaged; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, often intruding, stigmas 1–2. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, 1800 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Eustoma, Exacum, Gentiana). [Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae. Cambridge Univ Press] Gentianella tenella moved to Comastoma. Key to genera revised by Bruce G. Baldwin. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Wood & Weaver 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:441–487; Struwe & Albert 2002 Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge Univ Press]

Key to Gentianaceae

Annual, short-lived perennial herb, glabrous, ± glaucous. Stem: erect, branched. Leaf: basal, cauline, opposite. Inflorescence: cyme or flowers 1. Flower: parts in 5s; calyx lobed ± to base, lobes linear, narrow-keeled, acuminate; corolla > 2 cm, wide-bell-shaped, lobes >> tube, nectary pit 0 (nectaries at base of ovary); ovary sessile, style slender, entire, deciduous, stigma 2-lobed.
1 sp.: North America, Central America, West Indies. (Greek: beautiful mouth, from corolla tube)

E. exaltatum (L.) G. Don subsp. exaltatum
Plant 1.5–10 dm. Leaf: basal 2–10 cm, spoon-shaped-obovate to elliptic-oblong, obtuse; cauline 1.5–9 cm, elliptic to lanceolate, ± obtuse, upper acute. Inflorescence: pedicels 2–14 cm. Flower: calyx 10–21 mm; corolla 2–4.5 cm, pale to deep violet-blue (rose-violet, white), throat ± white with dark purple blotches, lobes elliptic to obovate, rounded to subacute.
2n=±72. Roadsides, alkaline marshes, other open, wet places; 100–600 m. South Coast, Peninsular Ranges, Sonoran Desert; to southeastern United States, Central America, West Indies. ± all year [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Eustoma, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Eustoma exaltatum subsp. exaltatum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.