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CACTACEAE CACTUS FAMILY

Bruce D. Parfitt, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree, generally fleshy. Stem: cylindric to spheric, or flat; surface smooth, tubercled, or ribbed (grooved); nodal areoles bearing flowers. Leaf: generally 0 or early-deciduous, flat to ± cylindric. Spines: areoles generally with central, radial spines, occasionally with glochids. Flower: generally 1 per areole, bisexual [unisexual], sessile, radial [bilateral]; perianth parts generally many [5], scale-like to petal-like; stamens many; ovary inferior [superior], style 1, stigma lobes generally several [many]. Fruit: dry to fleshy or juicy, indehiscent to variously dehiscent, spiny, scaly, or naked; tubercled or smooth. Seed: generally many, occasionally 0–few.
± 125 genera, ± 1800 species: America (especially deserts), Africa; many cultivated, some edible. [Parfitt & Gibson 2004 FNANM 4:92–257] Spines smaller, fewer (0) in shade forms; yellow spines blacken in age. Introduced species increasingly escape cultivation. Hybridization common in some genera. Taxa of Escobaria in TJM (1993) moved to Coryphantha. —Scientific Editors: Bruce D. Parfitt, Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Hunt 2006 The New Cactus Lexicon, DH Books, Milborne Port, England]

Key to Cactaceae

CYLINDROPUNTIA CHOLLA

Marc Baker, Bruce D. Parfitt & Jon Rebman

Shrub or small tree, erect to decumbent, many-branched. Stem: regularly segmented, segments generally < 50 cm, < 5 cm diam, cylindric, fleshy, glabrous; ribs generally 0; tubercles generally elongate. Leaf: deciduous. Spines: 1–many per areole, < 2 mm diam, generally needle-shaped, smooth, straight, tip smooth or barbed, epidermis separating as a papery sheath; central spines generally not distinct from radial spines; glochids generally numerous in each areole. Flower: lateral to terminal, from distal portion of areole, 1.8–8 cm diam; perianth yellow, green-yellow, orange-yellow, to bronze, pink, or red; ovary glabrous, spines 0–many, glochids many in each areole, scales 0. Fruit: indehiscent; spheric or cylindric to obconic, dry or fleshy to leathery in age, green to dark yellow, glabrous, spiny or spines 0. Seed: 1.9–7 mm, flattened to ± spheric, surface smooth to angular, within an aril, bony and ± white when dry.
35 species: America. (Cylindric Opuntia) [Pinkava 2002 Succ Plant Res 6:59–98] Hybridization common. Young buds of some species used as for food, many species for ornamental.
Unabridged references: [Rebman & Pinkava 2001 Florida Entomol 84:474–483]

Key to Cylindropuntia

C. echinocarpa (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth SILVER or GOLDEN CHOLLA
NATIVE
Plant < 3 m. Stem: trunk generally 1–2, main branches spreading to curving upwards, few, generally short; terminal segments generally < 10 cm, 2–3 cm diam, firmly attached; tubercle 6–15 mm, < 8 mm high. Spines: 9–20, < 4 cm, pale gray to translucent yellow, sheath generally same color. Flower: inner perianth < 2.5 cm, green-yellow (red-brown); filaments green to pale yellow. Fruit: dry, tubercled, proximal tubercles ± = distal; base obtuse; spines dense distally. Seed: < 6 mm, generally fertile.
2n=22. Creosote-bush/white bur-sage, blackbush, saltbush, other desert and Great Basin Floristic Province scrub; 300–1600 m. East of Sierra Nevada, Desert; to Utah, Arizona, northern Baja California. [Opuntia echinocarpa Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow; Opuntia wigginsii L.D. Benson] Mar–Jun [Online Interchange] {CNPS listed}
Unabridged note: Although this sp. hybridizes with most co-occurring Cylindropuntia species, only a single sterile individual of putative Cylindropuntia echinocarpa × Cylindropuntia ramosissima is known.

Previous taxon: Cylindropuntia californica var. parkeri
Next taxon: Cylindropuntia X fosbergii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cylindropuntia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=80395, accessed on Dec 18 2014

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click for enlargement Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cylindropuntia echinocarpa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.