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PARNASSIACEAE GRASS-OF-PARNASSUS FAMILY

Peter W. Ball

Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome [annual], generally glabrous, often with ± red marks on leaves, flowers when dry. Stem: scape with generally 1 leaf-like bract [scape 0]. Leaf: simple, basal [cauline], alternate [subopposite], generally petioled, often with ± red marks when dry; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: 1-flowered [cyme]. Flower: generally bisexual, ± radial; hypanthium minute, free from ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5 [0], free, generally white; stamens generally 5, opposite sepals; staminodes generally 5, alternate stamens, lobes generally present, thread-like to oblong, gland-tipped; pistil 1, ovary superior, chamber ± 1, placentas 4 [3], axile below, parietal above, styles very short, stigmas [3]4. Fruit: [3]4-valved capsule. Seed: many, winged, netted.
2 genera, ± 70 species: northern temperate, low arctic, alpine, temperate South America (Lepuropetalon, Parnassia). [Zhang & Simmons 2006 Syst Bot 31:122–137] Formerly included in Saxifragaceae. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

PARNASSIA GRASS-OF-PARNASSUS
Leaf: basal, blade ovate to reniform, entire, base tapered to cordate. Flower: petals white, with yellow, green or gray-brown lines.
± 70 species (Mount Parnassus, Greece)
Unabridged references: [R.B. Phillips 1980, Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ of California, Berkeley]

Key to Parnassia

P. cirrata Piper
NATIVE
Leaf: 3–18 cm; blade 1–6 cm, round-ovate, base tapered to weakly cordate. Inflorescence: 17–43 cm; bract above scape middle, ovate, base cordate, clasping. Flower: calyx lobes 3–7 mm, elliptic, entire to minute-dentate, reflexed in fruit; petals 8–15 mm, ovate to ± elliptic, fringed basally; staminodes 3–6 mm, lobes < 15, ± equal, thread-like to linear, tips spheric; anthers 1.5–2.2 mm. Fruit: 5–13 mm. [Online Interchange]

P. cirrata var. intermedia (Rydb.) P.K. Holmgren & N.H. Holmgren CASCADE GRASS-OF-PARNASSUS
NATIVE
Leaf: larger blades (1)1.3–5 cm wide. Flower: larger petals (4)5–10 mm wide; longer fringe filaments 1–3(3.5) mm.
Wet places; 700–2900 m. Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range; to Washington, Idaho, Nevada. Aug–Sep [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 17 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Parnassia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=80238, accessed on Apr 17 2014

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Bioregions in which Parnassia cirrata var. intermedia occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.